A Study On Digital Computer Technology Information Technology Essay

However, computing machine engineering is non ever work outing a job but besides create a job itself which can put on the line and menace the quality of human life. Vacca J.R ( 2009 ) emphasizes on the importance of computing machine security as we already witness a batch of computing machine security onslaught runing from virus, worm, Trojan, individuality larceny and besides raging book kiddies since early 1980s to late 2000s.

Lehtinen. Rick ( 2006 ) besides emphasis on computing machine security as he explains in his article that in 2003 entirely, computing machine security become a critical issue when it cost commercial industries to lost 100s of 1000000s which finally becomes chief subscriber to commercial offense.

Therefore, people should be warned about the potency of computing machine engineering hazards and be advised on how to take safeguard stairss in order to avoid unwanted incidents which lead to this paper principle as below.

Civilization of homo has revolutionized by the being of computing machine engineering that helped them to better quality of life without realizes the effects of the engineering itself to the person, society, and authorities.

Today, bulk of plants in sector industry solve complex job utilizing distributed calculating such as work outing unstable dynamic job, natural catastrophe prognosis and work outing D.N.A protein construction that calculate million algorithms in one procedure. Meanwhile, the radio engineering helps learning method in instruction.

Yet, our day-to-day life besides uses a computing machine engineering such as personal computing machine, nomadic phone and unreal engineering that assist human to better their day-to-day life. However, some of the computing machine applications besides have hazards which influence person to be inactive in term of behaviour such as computing machine games addict, lost involvement in instruction and less interaction in societal life.

Furthermore, this engineering helps public to avoid traffic jam and allow authorities to command transit to be more efficient such as aero plane path and air traffic. On the other manus, the hazard of the accident can go on to public if computing machine virus such as worm infected their system.

Last but non least, growing of economic system, security and industry development can be improved through cyberspace engineering. Unfortunately, this engineering besides introduces new offenses known as cyber war and cyberspace terrorist act which exploits a virus and illegal entree into unauthorised computing machine including the authorities mainframe and waiter.

Therefore, this research is conducted to demo all possible positions between the deduction of computing machine engineering, part of computing machine engineering to single, community and society which bring us to discourse whether the usage of computing machine engineering gives positive and negative position by reacting to the undermentioned inquiry:

  1. To detect computing machine engineering parts in current civilisation.
  2. To look into current and possible hazards of computing machine engineering that may endanger human life.
  3. To happen out the safeguard needed to be taken to avoid or extinguish computing machine engineering hazard and menace.

Therefore, based on these three pillars of aims, a comprehensive literature reappraisal is conducted in order to happen groundss, facts and supports for this research paper.

Literature Review

Computer Contribution

The desire and enticement to make a machine that could calculate and work out mathematical job already started since 17th century. However due to miss of supportive innovation such as electromechanical and electronic engineerings, all old efforts ne’er able to run into their nonsubjective until late of twentieth century where foremost electronic computing machine made it first visual aspect. This become the new morning of electronic computing machine engineering epoch.

Harmonizing to Matthew and Clarence ( n.d ) research paper, coevals of computing machine engineering could be divided into five coevalss. The first coevals one is started when ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator ) was invented by an electrical applied scientist J.Presper Eckert and physicist John W. Mauchly in 1942. Mathew et.al besides claim that ENIAC is the really first general intent electronic computing machine which use 1000s of vacuity tubings therefore make the size of this first computing machine is mammoth, undependable and unrealistically expensive. This undertaking was funded by United State military in order to assist them cipher missile projection for World War II uses. EDVAC, UNIVAC and IBM 702 besides fall within this coevals of computing machine.

In order to better first coevals computing machine dependability and to convey down its monetary value to acceptable degree, semiconducting material engineering was invented. By utilizing this engineering alternatively of vacuity tubing, 2nd coevals of computing machine engineering was born in late fiftiess. Mathew et.al besides province that 2nd coevals of computing machine uses magnetic tape as storage alternatively of pluging card. Magnetic tape could hive away several times more information and informations per unit size comparison to automatically pluging card. Therefore 2nd coevals of computing machine such as UNIVAC III is more dependable, able to hive away more informations significantly and is much cheaper to be made. These consequences to early acceptances in good set up scientific institutes to work out cold algorithm job.

Third coevals computing machine exist between 1969 and 1977 where integrated circuit engineering is widely available. Mathew et.al explains that with the aid of incorporate circuit engineering, 100s of electronic elements could be placed on a little Si bit. This is a immense promotion because in first coevals of computing machine, every individual electronic component is represented by a vacuity tubing which is every bit big as shoe box. But, with the debut of this engineering, a room size of vacuity tubing could be fitted in a piece of Si bit non larger than a lucifer box. This consequence computing machine to go manner smaller than it was in first and 2nd coevals epoch. IBM 370, DEC PDP-8 and UNIVAC 1108 were among the most good established computing machine mainframe for this coevals.

Matthew et.al besides states that computing machine mainframe, terminus or workstation and Wide Area Network start to rule instruction institutes and big corporations in intent to work out mission critical undertaking. ARPANET was developed by US authorities as anchor web to complect research research labs and universities mainframe so scientists could interchange informations and information faster than conventional postal method. This ARPANET engineering finally evolves to be world-wide web which we recognize now as the Internet.

Succeeding to this integrated circuit engineering, VLSI ( Very Large Integrated Circuit ) was invented hence 4th coevals of computing machine engineering was born in the 1980s. VLSI engineering allows many 1000s of electronic elements to be cramped in a little piece of silicon bit as being explain by Mathew et.al as “ The VLSI engineering greatly increased the circuit denseness. ” VLSI engineering allows computing machine chief memory or technically known as ultra-high entree memory unit to be attached to computing machine internal system. This make 4th coevals of computing machine is really antiphonal yet manner cheaper and smaller to be made comparison to old coevals of engineering.

IBM produced IBM PC while Apple Computer introduce Apple Macintosh personal computing machine in early 1980s. Both types of computing machines still evolve and exist until today without many changes to its original construct. These computing machines to a great extent populated school, university, office, mill and even place because of their very inexpensive monetary value, dependable, long lasting and comparatively high public presentation for day-to-day work. Notebook, laptop and personal digital aid computing machine besides fall into this coevals of computing machine.

Fifth coevals of computing machine is the latest but still on early phase. This computing machine engineering promises a whole new attack in the context of how human and computing machine interact. Oppose to older coevals of computing machine where computing machine is a tool for human, 5th coevals of computing machine is designed to work with human collaboratively and unobtrusively.

Electro-mechanical device such as automaton usage embedded computing machine bit as its encephalon. This bit is loaded with progress and complex algorithm known as Artificial Intelligent ( AI ) to execute its responsibility base on its ain logical thought without any expressed direction by human. This statement is supported by Mathew et.al in their survey which they write “ The race is now on constructing the following or “ 5th ” coevals of computing machines, machines that exhibit unreal intelligence. Therefore new coevalss of computing machines will affect robotics and computing machine webs. ”

Mainzer. K. ( p.2-3, 1998 ) besides agree on the thought that current computing machine engineering is all about unreal intelligent which is focus on knowledge-processing system alternatively of number-crunching machine. He recognizes this coevals of computing machine as 2nd age of computing machine engineering. If these two documents are concluded, it is obvious that the first age of computing machine system is where computing machine is a tool and number-processing machine. This engineering is represented by first to 4th coevals of computing machine harmonizing to Mathew et.al. Second age computing machine shows that computing machine is no longer a human tools alternatively it is really a human unreal aid.

Therefore, it is undeniable fact that computing machine engineering contributes a batch in our modern society and engineering dependent life. Zomaya A.Y. , ( 2005 ; 20-21 ) emphasizes that computing machine engineering responsible to exponentially increases in human productiveness. Computer engineering constituent such as personal computing machine, web and embedded hardware become cardinal tools for research worker and maker.

The Internet which besides a sub-component of computing machine engineering change the manner people work, exchange information and do concern. Renyanky L. ( 2009 ) explains that in between 1970s and 1980s academic community treat the Internet as a forum enabling societal and informations exchange networking. This is quickly alterations in 1990s where the Internet already accessible by public. The Internet starts to go a medium to carry on concern either in the signifier of e-commerce or as portals of information associating to makers merchandises. Experts call this as web 1.0.

In the 2000s, the Internet evolves once more which is known as web 2.0. The promotion in computing machine and web engineering allow fast informations transportation and content rich web sites. These consequences to the manner information are shared in the cyberspace which are more media centric and dynamic. Social networking website such as Facebook become an embodiment for fast paced citizen to remain in touch with their friends and household and picture streaming website go a new signifier of amusement which antecedently dominated by telecasting. The manner authorities sector regulations any state besides start to alter. They need to be more crystalline because of the openness of cyberspace engineering which allow blogger to shout out their sentiment and leak sensitive information to the public anonymously.

Renyanky L. besides stresses in his article that biometric engineerings ; such as face acknowledgment system should be used to avoid cultural classification of people in security pattern ( p.44 ) . This will guarantee any informations and intelligent information collected is non jeopardized by any signifier of favoritism as computing machine public presentation does n’t affected by any emotional job.

In medicine field Windham, C. ( 2007 ) believes the outgrowth of nanorobot helps to bring around diseases and increase human quality of life. Nanorobot has the ability to take barriers to the circulatory system, kill malignant neoplastic disease and command subcellular cell organs in medicine intervention. Because of nanorobot work at microscopic degree, this accomplishment ca n’t be replicated even by the most adept sawbones.

As 4th coevals computing machine already penetrated schools and place, this engineering aid pupils expand their cognition and believing through information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) . By possessing ICT accomplishment, pupils able to seek and get the hang new cognition easier, faster, go more originative and able to execute critical believing base on their current state of affairs. Tay, L ( 2003 ) agrees that pupil can develop high order thought by utilizing ICT tools which include enlightening, situating, and constructive and communicating tools.

Albeit it is undeniable fact that computing machine engineering brings a batch of promotion and sweetening in our day-to-day life, as with any engineering created by our greatest head it does n’t liberate from development and side effects. These issues will be studied in following subdivision of this literature reappraisal.

Potential hazard and menace that may endanger human life

Even after over 50 old ages this engineering exists in our life and legion security and protection measuring has been taken to procure this engineering loophole, it still possess indefinite figure of engineering hazards that may impact personal, society and even government.. Computer engineering hazards could be originated from two beginnings which is the engineering itself and the terminal user.

From engineering position, hazards of computing machine engineering frequently highlighted as security and wellness issue. Computer security becomes a serious affair because every individual concern in this current modern society depends on this engineering to hive away informations, history dealing, advertizement and besides protecting company secret. Vacca J.R ( 2009 ) writes “ Security breaches can be an organisation significantly through a tarnished repute, lost concern, and legal fees ” ( p.3 ) . Social information besides archived in computing machine database engineering. Any security rear of barrel will do ruinous development such as on-line caricature, enterpriser sabotage and companies secrets illegal trade.

Vacca J.R besides explains that any company that successfully turn out how robust its computing machine substructure is protected could derive legion advantages such as marketing tool that demonstrate their capableness and willingness to protect its clients informations. Furthermore, a company with proper computing machine substructure protection will pass less clip and money to place security breaches and the demand to pay mulcts to statute law organic structure.

This fact is decently supported by Lehtinen R. ( 2006 ) survey that states in 2003, computing machine offense already go the most expensive commercial offense which cost over USD70 million worth of information lost, USD66 million lost from unneeded IT investing and USD201 million worth of lost from computing machine invasion onslaught. Even this figure was based on Federal Bureau of Investigation public study, it is non needfully accurate. This is because non every company which was attacked files a study. Lehtinen R. estimation that approximately 50 per centum of invasions were non reported at all due to undue range or merely to avoid bad promotion. This figure go worst when among those studies that have been filed, about 60 per centum become void studies when they fail to quantify the loss. So, based on these facts and by the nature of computing machine engineering dependant are additions exponentially by twelvemonth, it is safe to gauge that current commercial doomed due to security menaces is far more than the figure shown above.

However, computing machine engineering security is non merely a aggregation of hardwares and packages. Contradict to popular belief that computing machine security is all about firewall, antimalware, invasion sensing and placeholder waiter, the most of import component in computing machine security is the terminal user. If this component becomes the weakest nexus, security user will concentrate their attempt to assail this weak point.

Due to this misconception, many organisations invest 1000000s of dollar to purchase province of the art security hardwares and packages in hope to procure up their computing machine substructure but stop up with so many security breaches. This affair become worst when extremely skill IT professionals who should concentrate their energy protecting company computing machine system and train employees are frequently jammed with help-desk tasked such as resetting disregarded watchword, repairing stuck pressman and configuring new staff Personal computer as being explain by Vacca J.R ( pg 5 ) .

Furthermore, most computing machine users tend to take for granted on how friendly computing machine interface today. Many do n’t recognize that today ‘s computing machine is more complex and powerful than it was 20 or 30 old ages ago. Vacca J.R besides explain that some computing machine industry professionals do n’t wholly understand the construct of Windows register, port and things that goes behind the user friendly Windows graphical user interface ( GUI ) ( pg 4 ) . The effect of this action is, terminal users tend to believe that they are computing machine literate and frequently rank themselves as power user. This consequence to ignorance and take for granted behaviour which is something that ‘bad cat ‘ eager to work. Lehtinen besides states in his book that “ As broadband Internet entree becomes progressively popular, more users set up place computing machines and go forth them running 24/7. The consequence is they become marks for aggressors. ” ( p6 ) . So, computing machine users ignorance in security importance plus 24/7 connected to the Internet are more likely an unfastened invitation to attacker to work.

Bad cats are usually the true power users. They frequently realize that checking good protected computing machine substructure in proficient manner is excessively drawn-out and hard. Therefore, they exploit user ignorance and wonder. Vacca J.R. explains in his survey that even employees have been told legion times to disregard email fond regard from unknown transmitter, employees keep violate this policy. This consequence a virus known as “ I Love You Virus ” eruption in computing machine systems in planetary graduated table by working users ‘ electronic mail box. Another sort of computing machine menace is computing machine worm. Worm is non a virus but a piece of computing machine plan that replicate themselves to impossible figure which cause victims difficult disc full of refuse and congest victim webs with refuse package. Lehtinen R. writes in his book “ After retroflexing itself for the first 20 yearss of each month, it replaced web pages on the victim machines with a page that declared “ Hacked by Chinese, ” so launched an onslaught on the White House web waiter. ” ( p7 ) . These cause major mayhem in computing machine web and present a batch of hold and system slow down. Productivity lessening aggressively and care cost addition drastically.

Vacca J.R besides highlight ( pg 4 ) that phishing and cozenages are being actively used by aggressor to steal users ‘ sensitive information such as their bank username, watchword, recognition card figure and security codifications. What aggressor needs to make is direct a bogus electronic mail that lure stop user to travel to his bogus web site to reap user sensitive information. Attacker might claim that he is a legitimate executive from terminal users ‘ bank and requires users to travel to certain web hyperlink to update victims ‘ history item. Unfortunately for the victims, the hyperlink really redirects them to forge web site which is created by the aggressor. This signifier of onslaught could short-circuit even the most rigorous security attack as security decision maker unable to barricade electronic mail from making employee letter boxs due to productivity ground. But the effects and deductions are lifelessly because one time aggressor knows employees or terminal users ‘ history item ; he merely could utilize it at his ain advantage. Money transportation, corporate espionage, unauthorised purchase will be stop user and organisation large lost in money and credibleness. Money transportation and unauthorised recognition card purchase for illustration merely will do the victims to confront fiscal job while corporate espionage will do organisations to lost their secret forms or information sing their latest merchandises.

In add-on to computing machine user ‘s ignorance, they besides of course do n’t like beds of security protection such as the demand to come in login name and watchword several times a twenty-four hours in order to entree classified information or even to utilize their workstation. For terminal user, security bed is inconvenience and consume productiveness clip. Vacca J. R ( p.1 ) survey shows that each employee will blow about four hours of productiveness clip per twelvemonth merely because they need to identify in their username and password daily. In corporate position, four hours per employee per twelvemonth is a major lost if they have 1000s of employees. Even security experts claim that this loss is at acceptable degree compared to possible loss if there is no security protection at all, non all corporation figure caput accept this fact. For this corporate leader, net income ever come foremost and others come 2nd.

Some more, computing machine created without security in head as this paper explain in computing machine development subdivision, computing machine originally created for research workers and scientist to calculate complex mathematical map. Over clip, it evolves to be human productiveness tools. Therefore, the discoverers of this brilliant machine ne’er consider security as cardinal component. Computer engineering start to faces security issues in early 80s when every machine is connected each other with wired web. Merely from that phase, security engineer get down to develop and implement beds of security within computing machine architecture bed. Even so, this is considered as afterthought action because security engineerings really need to trail computing machine engineerings that evolve quickly. This hold provides important spread for aggressors to work it. And one time the spread is being patched, aggressors move to another spread that already available at that clip.

By uniting terminal user ignorance, incompetent IT professional and security holes aggressor could establish Denial of Service ( DdOS ) onslaught with the aid of victims ‘ web bandwidth and internet connexion. Denial of Service onslaught could do any web and web site paralyzes and unable to serve their users and endorsers. Lehtinen R. states that “ The computing machine of a naif user may be forced into take parting in a distributed denial of service ( DDoS ) onslaught aimed toward a designated mark and timed to fire off with 100s of 1000s of others so as to overpower the victim. ” ( p8 ) . This may ensue debasement in productiveness at terminal users side and service suppliers may endure with bad repute, undependable service image which possibly may be them a luck when their endorsers move to their rivals.

The promotion of computing machine engineering besides has high potency hazard to impact environment and societal universe. It introduces new structural feature of engineering that emphasized on technological development and determining technological hereafter. Harmonizing to ( Hans Lenk, 1998 ) “ progressing means come oning taking stairss over clip or distance toward another, a better, topographic point, nonsubjective or end province ” that refer between two position either advancement or progresss in engineering or rational stairss toward accomplishing a new province of the art within the field of doctrine of engineering itself.

Han dynasties report several sort of danger such electrical blackouts of metropolitan countries was occur due to susceptibleness of extremely developed and dumbly intertwined system known as systems-technocratic danger which can technically bring forth radioactive to others. Han dynasties besides notes that the power of invasion in multiple distributed engineering system gives ethical job to technological universe that appear to take the feature of destiny or fate. Without duty of world, the promotion engineering advancement can do world-wide graduated table of effects of technological intertwinement including globalisation consequence in organisation and economic system.

Many of new computing machine engineering are designed for the exclusive intent of easing communicating between single to run into new people around the universe utilizing internet engineering. Instant messaging, chat suites, Facebook and other web sites are specifically designed for the intent of meeting and connecting with person who portion similar involvements. Conversely, more cyberspace usage leads to more chance for toughs and sexual torment. Harmonizing to the 2005 Young Canadians in a Wired World survey of Grades 9 to 11 pupils, immature people are devouring users of this engineering. Ninety-four per centum of immature people have entree to the Internet in their places while 23 % of immature people have their ain cell phones that equipped with text messaging capablenesss and digital cameras ( Steeves, V. 2009 ) .

Therefore, the Internet becomes a popular tool for sexual torment. Cyber torment occurs when a verbal or physical behaviour of a sexual nature, purpose at a peculiar individual or group of people in community. The research reveals that some computing machine users use societal networking web sites and web logs to expose victim ‘s erotica stuffs in order to do cyber torment. The deduction of torment can do personal psychological science dislocation which consequence to outlook or physically hurt ( Maass, A. & A ; Mara, C. & A ; Guarnieri, G & A ; Grasselli, A. , n.d, p. 856 ) .

Physiology wise, there are several possible hazards of computing machine engineering that must be cognizant of that can damage human physical organic structure. Cellular telephone is a wireless communicating device which receives and radiates comparatively high amplitude of radio signal in order to transport voice over air. Therefore, a group of research workers claim that cellular telephones can do encephalon malignant neoplastic disease through signal ( Frey, Allan H. 2001 ) . The signal creates radiation exposure from the cellular phone through the encephalon and cause malignant neoplastic disease which resulted from a long latency. Frey et.al besides reference that there are important additions in malignant neoplastic disease that appear in short clip while the cellular phone is used due to the fact that human encephalon is straight exposed to radio beckon even if the sum is little.

Furthermore, by utilizing improper ergonomic computing machine equipment such as authoritative mouse or keyboard for a long clip exposes end user to legion lasting hurts such as insistent strain hurt ( RSI ) ( Moravec, H. 2009, p.2 ) . Wrist hurts can ensue lasting nervus harm if neglected and can change from a simple sprain to a serious instability of the carpal castanetss called wrist injury. Harmonizing to a survey in July issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a 732 per centum rise in acute computer-related hurts from 1994 through 2006 which double the 309 per centum addition in family computing machine ownership over the period.

With these so many hazards that being introduces by computing machine engineering, it is wise to analyze and inform terminal users and IT professionals the safeguard and bar actions that they may use to minimise if non eliminates these possible jobs which lead us to third research aim as being explain in great inside informations in following subdivision.

The safeguard needed to be taken to avoid or extinguish computing machine engineering hazards and menaces.

Every secure organisation has a end to accomplish a long term success to take advantage of legion benefits including insurance premium decrease and prevent security breach to increase yearly net income. For most organisation, the cost of making security is to cut down hazard and derive competitory advantage in market topographic point by bespeaking security tools from IT professional. Therefore, several ways can be taken to construct successful secure organisation.

Basically computing machine engineering related jobs and hazards originally come from the engineering itself and stop its users, a comprehensive attack consists of both parties need to be taken. End user need to be educated sing security consciousness while computing machine substructure and engineering demand to be developed with security in head.

Computer security consciousness could be started from anyplace but since most computing machines which involve confidential informations located at organisation or company, it is wise for company proprietor or board of manager to set a fraction of company one-year budget in carry oning computing machine security consciousness. IT professional should be send to qualified security preparation centre in order to hold proper preparation and competent degree to pull off organisation security substructure. These IT professionals besides should supply computing machine security workshop for employee in order to develop civilization of security. Vacca J.R explains in his book that although security substructures do n’t alter often, new signifier of menaces are developed every twenty-four hours. Thus it is of import to supply IT professional equal preparations so they could be dynamic adequate to maintain up with of all time altering computing machine security onslaught. He steadfastly emphasis on IT professional besides need to be actively involves in protecting company computing machine substructure ( p9 ) .

Furthermore, it is of import for each organisation to hold 3rd party to reexamine their security position. Vacca et.al province the advantage of holding 3rd party reappraisal organisational system is to give experience reviewing of broad scope of systems, application and device in assortment of industries through incursion proving that may do job in the hereafter. The incursion proving have several attack but the more efficient and less expensive is partial cognition analysis which provide a web topology diagram and IP reference to the 3rd party. ( p? )

Besides that, every system in organisation can be vulnerable without a mechanism to update their computing machine runing system. Today, most runing systems such as Windows Vista have at least one mechanism to update automatically from the Internet. Vacca et.al thinks that the decision maker must put in an update without any farther hold because it can expose to system onslaughts. There are simple tools that can assist to track a system update such as Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer which examine other cardinal security constellation ( p? ) .

Updating computing machine runing system and piecing computing machine application will shut known security holes. Ironically, security holes normally founded and exploited by aggressors foremost before operating system and application developer find a manner to piece that hole. Therefore, updating and piecing activities is critically of import and must be done every bit shortly as package makers release the updates or spots.

Furthermore, menace to rational assets and proficient substructures sometime within the organisation itself. Even the organisation have a strong security defence, the internal employee can do vulnerable activity such as conveying a USB Flash thrust from outside into the organisation. These devices are non merely menace to user local informations but besides a security hazard for the full web. Vacca et.al acknowledge overplus of handheld device have the ability to direct and have electronic mail every bit good make, shop and transmit files between other employee and besides to corporate computing machine. Therefore, the organisation needs to set up policy lineation to command the monolithic use of the device from the employee. ( p? )

Technical wise, computing machine substructure should be built with security and information protection in head. Data non merely could be steal by aggressor but could besides loss due to proficient jobs due to packages ‘ bugs and hardwares wear and tear. This is wholly normal in current computing machine engineering where every developer attempt to let go of and sell their merchandise in a really short merchandise rhythm. Late 1990s, makers usually released new merchandise to mass market in three to five period. But in these recent old ages, makers release their new merchandises every twelvemonth.

Therefore, Vadka et.al suggest every waiter should utilize RAID ( Redundant Array of Independent Disk ) engineering to automatically mirror and backup informations into secondary storage in existent clip. ( p144 ) In instance of primary difficult disc fail due to virus, onslaughts or automatically interrupt down, secondary difficult disc will be initialized and replace the broken primary difficult disc automatically. So, even informations in primary difficult disc gone with the difficult disc, practically the organisation does n’t loss any informations because of secondary difficult disc maintain the exact records as the primary difficult disc.

To avoid informations loss due to natural catastrophe such as inundation or fire, organisation informations should be on a regular basis backup and stored at secured location such as 3rd party information informations centre. Secure in this context mean, secure from physical onslaughts such as rob and secure from web onslaughts thru on-line efforts. Harmonizing to Vadka et.al, magnetic tapes will endure lasting harm if sustain ambient temperature is 38 degree Celsius. Optical media and difficult disc harm at 49 and 66 degree Celsius severally ( p631 ) .

To protect informations from being tampered or captured while it is being transferred from one location to another location, it should be encrypted utilizing latest and highest degree cryptanalysis method. Transport Layer Security and Secure Socket Layer are among one of the best secure conveyance protocol widely available today. Vadka et.al emphasize on utilizing cryptanalytic protocol to secured communicating channel particularly if it is being done through cyberspace. By actioning this secure protocol, informations hallmark, confidentiality, unity and nonrepudiation issue could be address efficaciously ( p398 ) .

Finally, every computing machine either workstation or waiter should be good protected by anti-malware package such as anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-spam and anti-trojan to extinguish back door, rootkit, Trojan and virus base feats. Regularly executing incursion testing should be company normal security pattern to prove either their security degree still at acceptable degree or non. Vadka et.al suggest organisation should utilize 3rd party security company to be their organisation ‘s Satan advocates to thoroughly test organisation security exposure ( p391 ) .

Therefore, based on these three chief aims for this research paper, we could reason and wrap up our determination in the Analysis and Finding subdivision. This will reply all three aims which really are the pillars for this research paper.

Analysis and Findingss

The manner digital computing machine engineering contributes in current civilisation could be categorized in 5 coevalss. Initially it was developed for military intents and in 50 old ages it has become a necessity in human day-to-day life as being explained by Matthew N. O. Sadiku in his article Development of computing machine.

Personal computing machine, web and embedded hardware become human productiveness and societal tools. As the calculating power addition exponentially by each coevals with the aid of semiconducting material engineering promotion, computing machine assistance in industry becomes a cardinal tool for research worker and maker. ( Albert Y. Zomaya, 2005 ; 20-21 ) .

Through cyberspace engineering, pupils can larn online and happening research stuff utilizing their computing machine through web site such as collaborative acquisition and scholar web site ( Mark Windschitl, 1998 ; 27:28-33 ) .

Besides in medicine intervention, physician can utilize nanodevice such as nanobots that have the ability to execute real-time curative map for the patient. ( Bawa R. , 2007, p. 1 ) .

Vadka et.al ( 2009 ) states the weakest nexus in computing machine security is human itself. They tend to disregard the importance of computing machine security because it will necessitate them to take several excess safeguard stairss as they found this as fuss. Computer offense normally takes this advantage and exploits this societal technology failing. Furthermore, computing machine ab initio was developed as a production tools and security ne’er was maker large precedence. This introduces a batch of hazards for homo in societal and technological manner. Identity larceny, on-line banking fraud and viruses may do the victim lost his or her self-respect, money and cherished work. In larger graduated table, hacking, checking and denial of service onslaught may be establishment and authorities to lost confidential informations which might non be replaceable.

Socially computing machine engineerings have many possible hazards that can damage human physical organic structure. One of the hazards is wireless or nomadic signal that causes NCI encephalon tumour and deduction of fatigue to human organic structure ( Inskip & A ; Tarone & A ; Wilcosky & A ; Shapiro & A ; Selker & A ; Fine & A ; Black, Loeffler & A ; Linet, 2001 ; 344:79-86 ) . Furthermore, computing machine can do utility wrist harm without proper equipment to the user. ( Moravec, H. , 2009, p.2 )

The engineering of cyberspace cause community particularly teenager involve with negative value behaviour such surfing erotica web site, on-line game dependence and computing machine torment which change feature of human behaviour. ( Maass, A. & A ; Mara, C. & A ; Guarnieri, G. & A ; Grasselli, A. ,2003 )

Vadka et.al ( 2009 ) besides explains in his book Computer and Information Security enchiridion that IT staff and computing machine user demand to be educated with professional preparation on how to utilize computing machine safely and ever concern about informations security and possible menaces by cyber-crime. As the terminal user and IT professional start to hold security concern civilization, from clip to clip the weakest nexus of computing machine security, which is human itself could be reduced significantly.

In proficient manner, computing machine hardware and package must be developed with security in head. Operating system and application demand to be patched every bit shortly as maker release any hot holes. To protect informations lost in the event of difficult disc clang or unauthorised omission, Vadka et.al suggests that RAID system should be used and this system must be enforced with regular informations backup and remotely stored in secure location such as protected informations centre.

To avoid individuality larceny and cyberspace fraud, each informations dealing must be encrypted with available engineering such as TLS and SSL. Anti-malware besides need to be installed in any system to battle virus and Trojan onslaught which may give entree to hacker to execute unauthorised entree in protected computing machine system. Furthermore, hardware or package based on firewall and invasion sensing system could be deployed to command who may entree the system and who may non.

He besides emphasize on engaging 3rd party hearer to measure organisation ‘s computing machine system security by regularly perform incursion proving.


The endurance of the computing machine engineering from first development until now has contribute positive and negative deduction which make immense difference to the quality of human life in both community and security position.

Though there are many possible hazards to endanger human life, research has shown a comprehensive attack to the job including informations security protection and safeguard measure to avoid computing machine engineering hazard could be taken to minimise the negative deduction of computing machine engineering.


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Maass, A. & A ; Mara, C. & A ; Guarnieri, G & A ; Grasselli, A. ( 2003 ) . Sexual torment under societal individuality menace: the computing machine torment paradigm. Italy: University of Padova.

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