Acid Rain And Ozone Pollution
Acid Rain and Ozone Pollution Research Paper
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Pollution entails the introduction of gear into the surroundings in portions that may change environmental situations and in turn, harm organisms. Acid rain and ozone air pollution are a type of pollution, which entails the discharge of gaseous and dust particles in quantities that destroy the integrity of the environment and affect organisms in their respective habitats and ecosystems.
Essentially, the ambiance is an integral natural useful resource of the earth because it accommodates and maintains gases in appropriate proportions, that are important for the survival of organisms in nature. In this case, the occurrence of acid rain and ozone air pollution is as a result of emission of gases in large quantities, which have the capacity to pollute the air. Singh and Agrawal state that human activities such because the burning of fossil fuels and pure causes such as volcanic eruptions launch nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, and ozone, which are precursors of acid rain (15).
These oxides combine with atmospheric water and type acid rain. Aggarwal et al. state that the interaction of nitrogen oxides and risky organic compounds contributes to the formation of terrestrial ozone, which is a pollutant responsible for global warming (1991). In this view, to enhance understanding of air air pollution, the analysis paper examines the nature of acid rain and ozone air pollution and subsequently discusses its causes and results.
The Nature of Acid Rain and Ozone Pollution
Acid rain is a type of pollution characterized by the presence of nitric acid and sulfuric acid within the rain, snow, hailstones, dew, and fog. The presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the environment leads to the formation of acid rain. According to National Atmospheric Deposition Program, carbon dioxide, oxygen, sunlight, ozone, and water catalyze the conversion of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide into nitric acid and sulfuric acid, respectively (par. 2).
These acids then accumulate within the environment and fall to the earth’s floor as rain, snow, dew, fog, and hailstones. The amount of nitric acid and sulfuric acid is proportional to the variety of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide which are current in the environment (Singh and Agrawal 15). Hence, acid rain occurs when there are high proportions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide within the environment.
Ozone pollution is a type of air air pollution, which happens when the amount of ozone (O3) will increase in the atmosphere. Although ozone that is current in the stratospheric layer is necessary because it protects people and organisms in opposition to dangerous ultra-violet radiation, its presence in the tropospheric layer is harmful. Aggarwal et al. argue that the presence of ozone within the tropospheric layer constitutes pollution as a result of it acts as particulate matter that scatters sunlight, promotes absorption of ultra-violet radiation, and causes global warming (1990). Hence, terrestrial ozone is a really dangerous pollutant to humanity and organisms.
Causes of Acid Rain and Ozone Pollution
Human actions and natural processes are the reason for acid rain. The human actions that emit nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are exhaust fumes from motor autos, industrial emissions from smelters and fossil fuels, and power stations that use fossil fuels (Singh and Agrawal 15). Given that exhaust fumes from motor automobiles and industrial emissions are frequent in city centers, the emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides are very high.
National Atmospheric Deposition Program states that urban centers with high inhabitants density, vehicle traffic, and industrial actions expertise high levels of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions (par. 9). Natural sources of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are lightenings, oceans, and volcanic eruptions (Singh and Agrawal 15). However, these natural sources do not contribute considerably to acid rain.
An increased amount of terrestrial ozone happens due to human actions, which release nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. According to Aggarwal et al., motor autos, industries, and power vegetation burn fossil fuels and emit nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, which interact within the presence of extremely-violet radiation and result in the formation of ozone (1990). The variety of ozone peaks late within the afternoon after the emitted gases have absorbed sufficient warmth to catalyze the formation of ozone.
Effects of Acid Rain and Ozone Pollution
Acid rain and ozone pollution have harmful effects on organisms because they have scorching effects on the leaves of vegetation. Given that acids have scorching results, they destroy the integrity of the leaves and intervene with their features. National Atmospheric Deposition Program states that acid damages depart and make them vulnerable to environmental stresses and illnesses (p. 12).
Singh and Agrawal additionally indicate that ozone damages leave by inflicting desiccation and altering coloration (1992). The broken leaves lose their physiological features of photosynthesis and cause crops to experience retardation in their growth and development. The ability to manage the loss of water is lost; hence, predisposing plants to physiological drought. Moreover, the scorching effects of acids destroy the protective membranes of crops and make them vulnerable to illnesses.
Since organisms within the surroundings reside inside a narrow range of pH, acid rain causes a significant drop within the normal pH. Singh and Agrawal explain that acid rain causes acidification of water our bodies and ends in huge deaths of aquatic organisms similar to fishes, amphibians, planktons, and microorganisms (18).
A slight change in aquatic pH has deleterious results on organisms as a result of it affects their biochemical and physiological processes. A regular aquatic environment has a pH of 6.5 or more, but a number of organisms can survive at a pH of 5; nonetheless, none can survive on a pH of lower than 5 (National Atmospheric Deposition Program par. 15). Therefore, acid rain has the potential to kill all aquatic organisms if it occurs on a large scale.
Acid rain additionally has a substantial impact on agriculture because it impacts the supply of nutrients within the soil. National Atmospheric Deposition Program reviews that acid rain lowers agricultural production by lowering soil nutrients, changing the proportion of chemical substances within the soil, and killing necessary microbes in the soil (par. 16). Acid rain reduces soil nutrients as a result of it dissolves and leaches them away. Singh and Agrawal’s state clarify that acid rain reduces the pH of the soil and causes the liberation of cations similar to potassium, magnesium, and calcium, that are necessary in the progress and improvement of crops (18).
When leaching occurs, the proportion of vitamins in the soil reduces, whereas the proportion of poisonous heavy metallic will increase. A decrease in pH harms microbes within the soil, hence, decreasing the rate at which essential microbial processes occur in the soil. Ozone is a greenhouse house gas, which has the capability to trigger world warming and have an effect on the distribution of rainfall patterns in various locations globally. Aggarwal et al. assert that the increased focus of terrestrial ozone contributes to world warming as a result of it has a greenhouse impact.
Acid rain has harmful results on humanity as a result of it dissolves heavy metals and causes respiratory ailments. National Atmospheric Deposition Program states that acid rain pollutes water by dissolving lead and copper, which are harmful metals, and inhalation of acidic fog causes respiratory diseases similar to bronchial asthma (par. 19). Exposure to steer and copper causes psychological and systemic sicknesses. The aged are susceptible to respiratory illnesses owing to their growing older respiratory system.
Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere is protecting in opposition to extremely-violet radiation from the solar, its presence within the troposphere is harmful to humanity and organisms. Ozone pollution has dangerous results on humanity because lengthy-time period exposure increases the incidence of bronchial asthma, pores and skin diseases, and lung most cancers among individuals (“Green Facts: Air Pollution” par. three). Aggarwal et al. argue that the combined effect of ozone and carbon monoxide causes acid rain and subsequently contributes to the injury of lung tissue (1990). In this view, acid rain and ozone air pollution are liable for the growing cases of lung cancer and bronchial asthma.
Given that acid has corroding results, acid rain corrodes human structures. National Atmospheric Deposition Program stories that buildings, statues, monuments, automobiles, metallic structures, and tombstones corrode quicker in acid rain than in normal rain (par. 21). In this case, acid rain hastens deterioration of human structures, and thus, reduces their longevity.
Acid rain and ozone air pollution are the dominant forms of air air pollution as a result of they emanate from human activities. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide do not only result in the formation of acid rain but additionally act as catalysts within the formation of ozone.
The mixed impact of acid rain and ozone results in the destruction of terrestrial plants, death of aquatic organisms, reduced agricultural manufacturing, the emergence of human ailments corresponding to lung cancer, asthma, and pores and skin ailments, and deterioration of human structures. Therefore, acid rain and ozone air pollution are public and environmental well being issues that require effective mitigation measures.
Aggarwal, Anjali, Reeta Kumari, Neeti Mehla, Rishi Singh, Sonal Bhatnagar, Kameshwar Sharma, Kuldeep Sharma, Amit Vashishtha, and Brijesh Rathi. “Depletion of the ozone layer and its penalties: A evaluation.” American Journal of Plant Sciences 4.10 (2013): 1990-1997. Print.
Singh, Anita, and Madhoolika Agrawal. “Acid rain and its ecological penalties.” Journal of Environmental Biology 29.1(2008): 15-24. Print.
National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Acid Rain. 2014. Web.
Green Facts: Air Pollution Ozone 2015. Web.
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