Agricultural Industries In Australia
Agricultural Industries in Australia Research Paper
The Commonwealth of Australia is located in Oceania and is “the world’s sixth-largest country” (“Our Country” par. 10). Colonized within the nineteenth century, Australia has become a developed and rich country with a mature agricultural economy sector. Nowadays, this is one of the 20 largest world economies. The areas of the nation embrace New South Wales (commonly abbreviated as NSW), Victoria (Vic.), Queensland (Qld), South Australia (SA), Western Australia (WA), Tasmania (Tas.), Northern Territory (NT), and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) (Australian Bureau of Statistics par. 1). The largest cities are the capitals of the states of New South Wales and Victoria, that’s, Sydney and Melbourne (“Our nation” par. 5). Canberra is the capital of the Commonwealth.
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The present inhabitants of the country is estimated to be 23.2 million (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. 4). Most of it’s located in the coastal regions while the middle of the continent just isn’t very densely populated.
Culture, History, and Nature
Australian culture is very various because the nation is multiracial, which is mirrored in all of the features of individuals’s life: from meals to religion. This is at least partially the results of the historical improvement of the nation. The aboriginal individuals of Australia had supposedly migrated to Australia from Asia about 50,000. Even though the primary Europeans to go to Australia had been the Dutch (it happened within the 17th century), it’s Captain James Cook who is often credited with this discovery. The first European settlement to appear in Australia in 1788 was a penal colony. However, within the following years, free settlers have been attracted by the land, and shortly the status was abolished (“Our Country” par. 2-5).
The climate in Australia is temperate, sub-zero temperatures being a rare occurrence. However, because of the mountain snow, in sure states of Australia (New South Wales, for instance) ski resorts are functioning (“Our country” par. 7-9). At the same time, it has been acknowledged that “Australia is the world’s driest inhabited continent with the biggest variability in rainfall” (Hochman et al. one hundred ten). The latter fact poses particular difficulties for the agricultural improvement of the country.
Politics and Economy
The gross domestic product (GDP) of Australia amounts to $999.6 billion, with 2.5% 5-yr compound annual growth (see fig. 1). The government of Australia has put an emphasis on growing a free economic system for the reason that Eighties, and it seems to still regard this issue as a priority nowadays. For instance, in 2014, the government stopped controlling the price of electrical energy (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. 7).
The political setting of the nation has been described as secure, the property guidelines as secure, judicial system as unbiased and unbiased (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. 5-7). These elements, along with the high monetary stability and agency control over inflation, have earned the country the fours place in the 2015 Index of Economic Freedom (part 1). Australian start-up firms are encouraged with the assistance of versatile licensing and easy laws. Apart from that, the country possesses a stable banking system of privately owned banks (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. 2-8).
Agricultural Industries in Australia
Overview. Major Produce
The history of agriculture in Australia is relatively current: because the settlement in 1788, it expanded slowly firstly of the earlier century, after which it flourished, growing at a particularly rapid pace between 1960 and 1990 (Bellotti and Rochecouste 21). Nowadays, the agricultural business in Australia is very nicely-developed. More than half of Australia’s land is dedicated to the business (Hochman et al. 111). The agricultural financial system sector of the country consists of vegetable, berry, and fruit (apple, pear, citrus) growing, rice and different grain growing, sugar cane rising, cotton growing, cattle (beef, sheep, pig), and poultry farming in addition to different industries. The Australian Bureau of Statistics provides a chart of the variety of agricultural industries in each area of the nation (see table 1).
Table 1. Business with primary agricultural exercise, by state and territory, years 2009-2010
The regulation of the business is provided by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture. The Department works with the event and implementation of related insurance policies, offers quarantine and inspection along with the certification of the exported goods. Apart from that, it is involved with the protection of the pure nation’s resources and the economic and environmental research and advice (The Australian Government Department of Agriculture Website par. 1-5). At the identical time, free commerce is promoted in Australia, and authorities intervention (together with subsidies as well as quotas) is discouraged (Bellotti and Rochecouste 21).
Farming Systems and Technology used
Australian farmers are especially initiative concerning innovation, they usually have demonstrated the willingness to experiment and develop their enterprise (Bellotti and Rochecouste 31). Australian organizations just like the National Association for Sustainable Agriculture have been emphasizing the importance of accelerating the efficiency in assets use and minimizing the negative impression on the environment, including the preservation of biodiversity which has been mirrored in the rules of the Department of Agriculture (The Australian Government Department of Agriculture Website par. 1-5). As a outcome, conservational agriculture, which is considered a solution in the direction of rising and maintaining effectivity and sustainability, has turn into in style in Australia (Bellotti and Rochecouste 21).
The agriculture of Australia may be considered progressive. In the future, additional intensification of agriculture with regard to ecological growth is to be expected. The technologies used in the trade are, in lots of instances, aimed at the environment friendly administration of scarce sources, considered one of which is water (Hochman et al. a hundred and ten).
The problem of irrigation in Australia could be thought to be a problem because the water use is determined by rainfall and, subsequently, draughts can become a significant downside (Hochman et al. 112). The sources of agricultural water embrace irrigation channels, on-farm dams and tanks, and groundwater. The proportion of utilizing recycled water and other sources may be very small (see fig. 2).
In 2012-2013, the whole water consumption in Australia was 19,749 GL, 17,898 GL utilized by trade, and 1,851 GL by households as is acknowledged in the catalog number 4610.zero of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (para. four). As for the agricultural use of water, it amounted to eleven 561.9 ML (see fig. 3).
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (catalog number 1301.0) states that natural produce constitutes about 1% of the retail turnover, its annual growth estimated between 10% to 25% (para. 14-16). The market of organic food exists in Australia for greater than 20 years, and about one-third of the product is at present meant for export (Lockeretz 225, 227).
The National Association for Sustainable Agriculture, Australia (NASAA) performs a major role within the means of natural farming popularization, growth, and management (Lockeretz 225). Given the advantages that are generally attributed to the industry (the chemical-free environmentally-friendly products that can’t cause addiction and doesn’t comprise genetically modified elements), its recognition in the nation is anticipated to continue to extend.
It should be pointed out that GMO moratoria in Australia are not all-encompassing and range relying on the area (Paull 7). However, the general area of licensed natural land in Australia is larger than that in any other country, because it constitutes over 12.zero million hectares of certified organic land (Paull 8).
Export. Australia is a significant agricultural exporter; its key export produces being “beef, wheat, sugar, wool, barley, dairy, and wine” (Bellotti and Rochecouste 21). According to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture Website, about one-third of the overall agricultural produce of the nation is being exported (par. 1). Apart from that, a program aimed to assist small exporters has been launched in 2013 (The Australian Government Department of Agriculture Website par. three). It includes funding the small export initiatives to enhance access to the marketplace for small companies. As a end result, the export rates of the nation appear to have been growing relatively steadily for the past a number of decades (see fig. 4). The inspection and certification of the exported items are carried out by the Department of Agriculture.
Given the relatively scarce government assist, farmers of Australia have proved to be initiative and have been expressing curiosity within the implementation of the brand new technologies mentioned above. For instance, the Crop Science Society (founded in 1975) has become a significant forum for the communication between farmers and scientists (Bellotti and Rochecouste 22). As a result, the event of agriculture in Australia is, in some ways, promoted by the farmers themselves.
Unfortunately, certain characteristics of the Australian workforce could be considered a disadvantage. The problems with Australian agriculture “include depopulation, ageing, poor service infrastructure, and growing inequalities, notably in the area of health” (Alston 200). The depopulation is attributable to the truth that youthful folks have a tendency to go away the rural areas, preferring white-collar jobs within the cities, which leads to the getting older workforce of the Australian agriculture business.
As the workforce variety will increase and modifications, the Australian government attempts to reply, for example, by way of the laws aimed toward eliminating age discrimination (Kossen and Pedersen 74). Still, the issue of aging and diminishing farming workforce within the country stays a problem to be solved (see table 2).
The unemployment rate within the nation is 5.6% (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. four).
Table 2. Employment in the Australian agriculture business
Recommendations to Invest in Australia
The globalization of Business and Cross-Cultural Communication
Globalization, as a means of international integration, has embraced the life of modern society on all levels, together with the social and cultural ones (Alston 198). Australia has proved to be a competitive agricultural producer, which turns the nation into an appealing investment option.
The problem of cross-cultural communication arises within the context of globalization and international trade and funding. With the growing variety of financial contacts, the need for cross-cultural communication skills becomes especially relevant. Those include, first of all, the necessity to keep in mind the differences between the companions belonging to completely different cultures and in addition to exploiting the advantages offered by the similarities of their worldview (Reeves 7-14). Such an method in the direction of worldwide companies helps to avoid misunderstandings and increases the effectivity of communication along with the end result of deals and cooperation.
Investing in Australia
Porter’s diamond model could possibly be used to explain the alternatives provided by the Australian agriculture industry. The mannequin consists of a number of determinants of the competitiveness of an industry, specifically the “issue (input) circumstances, residence demand circumstances, related and supporting industries and industry strategy structure, and competitiveness” (Ozgen sixty four). The enter elements of Australia have been characterized above, and, because it has been mentioned, they embody both positive (for instance, the vast volumes or the revolutionary nature of agriculture) and unfavorable ones (as an example, water or population issues). However, as it is pointed out in the diamond mannequin, the constructive enter elements can be used to eliminate the adverse impact of the antagonistic ones, which can be illustrated by the usage of innovative technologies for ecologically efficient agriculture.
Apart from that, the position of government as an element capable of modifying the first three of the determinants is identified within the diamond mannequin (Ozgen 64). One of the pluses of investing in Australian agriculture is the truth that the federal government is encouraging a free financial system in the country. Definitely, this presupposes lesser support. Still, within the 2015 Index of Economic Freedom, Australia is ranked number four, which makes it one of many five economically free international locations of the world and an appealing place for business development (par. 1).
The political setting of the country has been described as possessing effective anti-corruption measures along with with “properly-established and transparent political processes, a strong legal system, and an expert paperwork” (2015 Index of Economic Freedom par. 6). Possibly, because of sound economic politics, Australia has enjoyed more than two decades of economic enlargement, which increases its enchantment as an funding choice (2015 Index of Economic Freedom, par 5). Finally, being one of the 20 largest world economies, Australia is expected to stay amongst them for the subsequent several decades and, possibly, obtain the next ranking in the future (Smialek par. 2). All of those elements make investing in Australia an interesting option.
2015 Index of Economic Freedom. The Heritage Foundation, 2015. Web.
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