Art Appreciation Chapters 18-20

Art Appreciation Chapters 18-20

When did Islam begin?
Early 17th century
How was the Taj Mahal influenced by Persian architecture?
Each of its four facades is set with an iwan
What is the name of the holy book of Islam?
Qur’an
What is Muhammad’s emigration from Mecca to Medina called?
Hijra
Which of the following became in important device for Islamic artists as a result of Islamic doctrine forbade images of animate beings in religious contexts. What effects did this have on Islamic design?
Artists ornamented manuscripts with geometric patterns and stylized plant forms
What was the most famous Nubian kingdom called? When did it exist?
Kush; it rose during the 10th century and lasted over 1,400 years
What architectural element marks the direction of Mecca?
The qibla wall
What object appears at funerals of important Igbo men of Nigeria?
Igele
What art form became the most highly regarded art in the Islamic world? Why?
Calligraphy, because the Qur’an was recorded by calligraphers
In what context could illustrations of people be used in Islamic culture? What example was given in the text?
Books (beside the Qur’an) as shown in Bahram Gur and the Princess in the Black Pavilion
Cultural exchange between Islam and Byzantium is exemplified by what art form in the Great Mosque at Cordoba Spain?
The dome in front of the mihrab
A ram’s head was used as a symbol of a sun god in which two African cultures?
Kush and Egypt
Which African culture discussed in the text still survives today?
Benin
Why does much of the artwork from Africa no longer exist?
They were made from perishable material like wood
What is the term for the containers people of Kongo use to hold materials that aid in rituals for harnessing the powers of the dead?
Minkisi
What was the minaret of the Kairouan Mosque in Tunisia was modeled after?
A Roman lighthouse
What are Minkisi? What is a function of a minkondi?
Containers and they hunt down and punish witches and wrongdoers
Contrast the way masks are viewed in Western museums with their function in African cultures.
In Western cultures we show our masks and put them on display, but for African cultures they treat masks as an isolated and inert object
The Berbers were originally from what country?
Africa
What are the physical characteristics of Nok sculpture?
Smooth surfaces and D-shaped eyes
A small Indus sculpture of a torso exhibits a “relaxed abdomen.” What do scholars think this may represent?
The breathing techniques used for yoga
What are yakshi? What do they symbolize? Were they originally part of Buddhism?
A nature spirit symbolizing fertility and abundance and no
What do Hinduism and Buddhism have in common?
They have a core belief in the cyclical nature of time, including the cosmic cycles of the creation, destruction, and rebirth of the world and the briefer cycles of our own repeating lives within it
The temple complex known as Angkor Wat indicated what, with regard to the Khmer rulers?
Their position as a “god-king”
Be familiar with the Mughals; the culture that influenced them, the famous building the constructed, their connection to india, and their art forms.
Persian, Taj Mahal, when they arrived in India an Islamic culture developed, and painting and architecture
What was the chief concern of Daoism?
Bringing human life into harmony with nature
What are the characteristics of Japanese art?
Simple formes and natural materials
What is the theme of the Bodhisattva Guide of Souls hanging scroll fragment?
A chinese fantasy of an Indian prince
The spread of Buddhism followed a path through Japan, India, and China. In what order did this occur?
India, China, Japan
Where are shinto deities believed to be present?
The shrine at Ise
Who ordered the creation of the terra-cotta army?
The first emperor, Shihuangdi
What technique did the artist use in the Tale of Genji to enable us to view the characters in the story?
Birds eye view (showed emotion by the hemming)
Why has the set of hand scrolls known as the Heiji Monogatari Emaki been described as cinematic?
Each scroll portrays a scene
What is the function of Koan, the Zen teaching tool?
It short-circuits logical thought
Zen priest-painters used a painting technique called haboku, splashed ink, as a metaphor for what?
finding peace in chaos
What does the mural detail known as the beautiful bodhisattva Padmapani expresses?
Compassion a perfected being feels for the rest of humanity
How did the early art represent the presence of Buddha?
With symbolic traces of his presence
What is the principle concern of the philosophy of Confucius?
the creation of a peaceful society
In the Japanese Asuka period, what does the author claim to be, perhaps, the most important art form?
Poetry
Be familiar with the subject and form of Song dynasty landscapes, particularly those of Li Cheng?
Human harmony with nature
What is the theme of the Kwakiutl mast called Crooked Beak?
It represents four monsters that kidnap people and turn them into cannibals
What is the similarity between the feather cloaks of Hawaii and the meetinghouses of the Maori people of New Zealand?
They embody ideas about the order of society, the respective roles of men and women, the continuing presence of ancestors, and the protective power of the gods
In the tumbaga pendant depicting a ruler, what is the meaning of the birds that unfold like wings on either side of his head?
They’re the spirit alter egos that give him access to the other world
When did the Aborigines arrive in Australia? Generally, where were they from?
50,000 years ago from Southeast Asia
Which Mesoamerican culture is often called the “mother culture”? Why?
Olmec civilization, it industrialized the features that mark later civilizations of the region
The Tairona ornament made of tumbaga was fashioned using what technique?
Lost-wax
In the Tolai spirit society known as duk duk, what are the duk duk?
Male spirits, also danced by maskers, that punish lawbreakers at the bidding of the community’s leaders
Although no one knows for certain how long people have lived in the Americas, the earliest-known evidence points to human habitations from about when?
12,500 years ago
What was the source of the stone used for the monumental sculptures of Easter Island?
Volcanic rock
Many Mimbres ceramics recovered from graves have been shattered or pierced. Why?
It represents the breaking of the human body in death
The ability to decipher Mayan writing has shifted out understanding of Mayan art. What did scholars use to believe Maya art was about? What do they currently think the art is about?
It used to be primarily sacred and depicted cosmic events, now we know that Mayan art is concerned with history
What are the accomplishments of the Mayan civilization?
astronomy, biology, concept of zero, created a sophisticated calendar and writing systems
The use of gold in the Americas was first developed in what contemporary country?
Peru
What was the function of a kiva? What civilization?
It was a ceremonial chamber used by Anasazi people
What does the term “pre-Columbian” mean? What is problematic about this designation, as far as indigenous people are concerned?
They didn’t consider themselves “before” anything
What was the role of Quetzalcoatl?
Brought rain and water through windstorms
Several cultures are known collectively as the “mound builders”. What is the most famous of these mounds?
The Serpent Mound
The Moche of South America left a substantial record of what art form?
Ceramic
What was the role of tobacco in the creation of art for many North American peoples?
It was sacred and a form of prayer
Like ziggurats of Mesopotamia, pyramids of this geographic area were symbolically understood as mountains
Mesoamerica
Identify the culture whose speech was rich in metaphors?
Aztecs

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