Chapter 14 – The Bureaucracy in a Democracy

Chapter 14 – The Bureaucracy in a Democracy

Bureaucracy
complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization used by large institutions to coordinate work.
implementation
the efforts of departments and agencies to translate laws into specific bureaucratic rules and actions
Spoils system?
– virtually no central bureaucracy at this time (before the 1880s)
– most jobs were with the post office or the courts
– simple jobs, often used to support political supporters
merit system
appointees in public bureaucracy must objectively be deemed qualified for those positions
department
the largest subunit of the executive branch
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, 1883
– covered positions much be obtained by passing an exam
– servants can’t be fired without cause
independent agency
agency that is not part of the cabinet department ; usually have sweeping mandates
Government Corporations
government agency that performs market-orientated public service and raises revenues to fund its activities ; highly independent
regulatory agency
a department, bureau, or independent agency who’s primary mission is to impose limits, restrictions, or other obligations, on the conduct of individuals or companies in the private
fiscal policy
the governments use of taxing, monetary, and spending powers to manipulate the economy
Service provision
The federal government either directly provides or works with states and the private sector to provide many services
Federal Reserve System
a system of 12 Federal Reserve banks that facilitates exchanges of cash, checks, and credit; regulates member banks; and uses monetary policies to fight inflation and deflation
revenue agency
the agency responsible for collecting taxes
Privitation
paying private contractors to perform tasks previously performed by government employees
devolution
a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government,
oversight
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies
The Department of Agriculture was created
to promote interest of farmers, and during the late nineteenth century
________ declared that “the era of big government is over” in 1996.
Bill Clinton
Which of the following agencies is responsible for promoting the public welfare?
– Department of Veteran Affairs
– Department of Labor
– Department of Health and Human Services
– Department of Interior
Since the 1950s, compared with the entire workforce, the number of federal employees has ________.
gradually declined
The “virtual fourth branch of government” refers to ________.
government contracting
Which agency was created in 2005?
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Which of the following is true about the National Performance Review?
the size of the federal workforce was reduced by about 25%
Which of the following statements about congressional oversight of the bureaucracy is most accurate?
While the number of oversight hearings has increased over time as the bureaucracy has expanded, the extent of oversight does depend somewhat on which party controls the White House.
Devolution describes a process through which
the federal government is downsized by delegating the implementation of programs to state and local governments.
The most significant example of devolution in recent decades has been in the area of ________.
welfare policy
Which of the following is NOT a way in which Congress can exercise oversight?
having members of Congress work part-time for a particular agency that is struggling to meet the demands Congress has placed on it
Which one of the following is NOT part of the Justice Department?
The Internal Revenue Service
The controversy over the Patriot Act reveals the complications of balancing ________ with the ________.
national security ; ciil liberties of individuals
The ________ administers the federal school lunch program.
Department of Agriculture
Which of the following is NOT a major role of bureaucracy?
passing laws
During the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, ________ federal agencies or programs were terminated.
he creation of the U.S. Northern Command was important because it
breached the long-standing line between domestic law enforcement and foreign military operations for the first time
The greatest number of federal government professionals working abroad are under the authority of the Department of ________.
Defense
Which of the following statements best describes how recent administrations have approached the issue of bureaucratic reform?
Republican administrations have aimed to make the existing bureaucracy work more effectively while Democratic administrations have sought to reduce bureaucracy by contracting out government work to private companies.

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