CPR Final Exam

CPR Final Exam

Which injury or illness should you call 9-1-1 for?
a person has trouble breathing
What should you do if the person does not give consent?
Do not give care but instead call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number
All of the following are indications that an emergency has occurred except:
Children playing and laughing
What are the steps to follow in an emergency?
Check-Call-Care
What is the purpose of Good Samaritan laws?
To help protect people who voluntarily give care without accepting anything in return
By following standard precautions to protect yourself and the injured or ill person, you can:
Minimize the risk of disease transmission
You see a women collapse in front of you while entering the lobby of your office building. You check the scene and then check the person for consciousness, but she does not respond. What should you do next?
Call or have someone else call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number
Which method should be used to open the airway of an unresponsive victim?
head-tilt/chin-lift
Medical identification tags can help the first aider identify:
1. allergies
2.medical history
3. medications
(T, F) Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels that is unusually is a sign that an emergency may have occurred.
true
When should an unresponsive victim be placed on the side?
When the victim starts to vomit or when you have to leave the victim alone
If the unresponsive victim is breathing and you are staying with the victim to monitor him/her the best position to put them in is:
on the back
About how many seconds should you check for breathing?
no more than 10 seconds
What should you do when checking a conscious person?
1. ask questions
2. do not touch or move painful, injured areas on the body
3. get consent to give care
(T, F) You do not give food or drink to a shock victim because they could have to go into surgery later on in the afternoon.
True
(T, F) If someone is in shock you do NOT have to call 911.
False
You determine that a person may be in shock. Do each of the following except:
give the person water
Shock refers to the failure of what system?
circulatory
What is the usual shock position?
on the back with the legs flat
Shock occurs when the body parts do not receive adequate:
oxygenated blood
(T, F) The number to the poison control number is 1-800-222-1222
True
What age group is most likely to die from poisoning?
20-76 year olds
In what situation would you have to use the acronym FAST?
Stroke
If a person is suffering from a Diabettic Emergency and you have given them a 4oz glass of orange juice and they still do not feel better in ___ minutes then you should take them to the hospital.
5
If some one has a seizure you should call 911 if any of the following are involved except;
they have epilepsy and it happens often
If contact has been made with dry chemicals the victim should immediately:
brush off the dry chemical with a gloved hand and avoid contaminating yourself or others
A victim of a seizure is not allowed to have?
anything to eat or drink
Risk Factors for a stroke are?
all answers given
What are the two Types of Diabetes?
Type I and II
There are 4 types of poisoning, which one of the following is not one;
visual poison
Which place accounts for the largest amount of poisoning exposures?
the home
If I victim is overtaken by sudden illness and goes unconscious and it is important to do what?
lay them down flat and monitor their breathing, prepare to give CPR
After obtaining critical information from a victim that has ingested poisoning, the first aider should: (assume that the poisoning is not acid or alkali and the victim is responsive)
immediately call posion control center
Signs of poisoning include which of the following?
1. dizziness or nausea
2. Irregular pupil size
3. trouble breathing
What age groups of people are more likely to suffer from Febrile Seizures?
children younger than 5
(T, F) Hypothermia results from indoor or outdoor exposure.
True
Care for a person with heat exhaustion includes the following:
get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place
Which of the following signals are not consistent with scorpion sting?
the sting site turns a green spot
Signs of frost bite are;
the look of waxy skin and cold and discolored skin
People that are at a higher risk for hypothermia are;
1. elderly
2. homeless
3. children
Heat related illnesses include the following:
heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke
(T, F) Some Insects leave their stinger behind in the victims skin and it is best to leave the stinger in the skin and not remove it.
False
What should be applied to a jelly fish sting?
vinegar
Which animal is a high-risk species for carrying rabies?
1. skunk
2. raccoon
3. bat
How should you care for a someone with minor frostbite on the fingers?
get the person to a warm environment and then rewarm his or her hands using skin-to-skin contact
What needs to keep covered in order for a person to retain body heat
head
What kind of heat emergency are you dealing with when you have to do this to the victim?
Heat stroke
If a child comes down with Rocky Mountain Fever the fever will appear;
2-14 days after the bite
Which type of dressing is used for minor wounds?
adhesive strips
The signs that a bandage is to tight are
1. coldness of the extremity
2. inability to move the fingers or toes
3. blue or pale skin amp; loss of sensation in the extremities
The most appropriate bandage for sprains and contusions would be:
an elastic roller bandage
Which answer best applies when applying an adhesive strip
1. do not touch the pad on the band aid
2. for a snug fit press the ends and edges down
Which wound results in significant bleeding?
avulsion
If an open wound continues to bleed after applying direct pressure
1. Add additional dressing and contniue to apply direct pressure
2. Do not remove any blood-soaked dressings
3. Ensue the 9-1-1 or the local emergency number has been called
A device used to stabilize a fracture or dislocation is called: a
splint
What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
1. to prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture
2. to reduce pain
3. to prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels
Which type of injury involves an open wound in which the bone has torn through the skin?
open fracture
What position should the hand be placed when splinting the wrist, hand, and fingers?
position of function
How do you care for a person with a possible head, neck or spinal injury?
Support the head in the position you find it. Do not try to align it
A ________ results in tearing of ligaments at a joint
sprain
The general care for a muscle, bone or joint injury includes the following?
Rest, Immobilize, Cold and Elevate
What should you do to keep swelling out of a sprained joint
an ice pack
An open triangular bandage can be used as a
sling
The two classifications for fractures are
open or closed
Always stabilize an injured knee in which position?
in the position found
To further stabilize an ankle after treating with the RICE procedure
apply a splint with a pillow or blanket
The recommended treatment for muscle strains is
RICE
What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?
dislocation
If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury:
splint the spine first
_____________ is a type of child abuse in which the parent or guardian fails to provide the necessary age-appropriate care to a child.
Child neglect
(T, F) A temperature of 100.1 is considered a fever, this is according to the book
False
SIDS most likely occurs in child ______ of age and there is no know cause of it.
4 weeks- 7 months
Viral meningitis is more common than bacterial meningitis
True
If you come up on to a crime scene it is best that you do which of the following.
Call 911
Children younger than ___ account for half of all exposures to poisonous substances in the United States
6
Medicine that works quickly to releve sudden inflamation of the airway.
Quick-relief medications
A measured dose of medicine in a dry powder form.
dry powder inhaler
A method of delvery of medication that works the fastest and works the quickest
Inhaler
Medicine that works slow to prevent or reverse inflamation of the airway.
Long-term control medications
A mist that is delivered over several minutes. Used most often for the elderly and children under 5.
small-volume Nebulizer
A measured dose of medicine in a mist form that goes directly into the person’s mouth
metered dose inhaler
Asthma is the ____ leading cause of hospitalization for people 15 years old and young
3rd
According to the book when administering the Epinephrine Auto-Injector you should use it on the victims ______?
mid-outer thigh
One signal of breathing emergency in an infant is
making a wheezing or high-pitched sound
You notice that a child looks panicked and cannot cough, speak or breathe. What life-threatening condition could the child be experiencing?
choking
A child is choking on a piece of hard candy. She is conscious and coughing forcefully. What should you do?
stay with her and encourage her to continue coughing
To give chest thrust to a infant, your fingers should be placed;
just below the nipple line
What should you do for a conscious infant who is choking and cannot cough, cry or breath.
give back blows and chest thrusts to clear the airway
Signals that indicate that an infant is choking includes
both coughing forcefully or the infant cannot cough, cry or breathe
What care should you give to a conscious adult or child who is choking and cannot cough, speak or breathe?
give back blows and abdominal thrusts
When you give care to an adult who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
In a child which of the following are signals of trouble breathing?
1. agitation
2. flushed, pale, ashen (gray), or bluish skin color
3. slow or rapid breathing
Care for a person who is unconscious and has a blocked airway includes:
give chest compressions & look for an object between compressions and breaths
When giving care to a child who is conscious and choking, where should you position your fist to give abdominal thrusts?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
How should you position a conscious choking infant to give back blows?
Face-down, with the infant’s head lower then his or her chest
(T,F) The number of breaths and compressions for CPR for adults and children are the same, 30 and 2 . For infants it is 15 compressions and 1 breath.
False
Which of the following is a link in the Cardiac Chain of Survival?
1. early recognition and early access to the EMS system
2. early defibrillation
3. early CPR
Which of the following situations indicates that an infant needs CPR?
the infant is not breathing
About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes on a child?
5
If a person is suffering from pain or discomfort in the chest that lasts more than 3-5 minutes or that goes away and comes back, this person is most likely having
a heart- attack
When would you stop giving CPR?
1. when trained help arrives and relieves you
2.when you are completely exhausted
3.when the victim starts breathing on his or her own
About how many cycles of CPR should you perform in 2 minutes?
5
When performing CPR, give chest compressions at the rate of:
about 100 compressions per minute
When performing CPR on a child:
a. compress the chest straight down and fast, about 100 compressions per minute &give chest compressions that are smooth and regular
When giving CPR to an infant, about how deep should you compress the chest
about 1 1/2 inches
Effective chest compressions
1.are delivered fast, about 100 compressions per minute
2.are smooth, regular and given straight up and down
3.allow the chest to return to its normal position
What is the most prominent medical emergency in the United States?
a heart- attack
Causes of cardiac arrest in children include
1.traumatic injuries or accidents
2.SIDS
3.airway and breathing problems
When giving chest compressions to an unresponsive choking infants, place to fingers:
one finger’s width below the nipple line
When giving rescue breaths to a child, how should you breathe into the child?
give a breath lasting about 1 second
Early CPR is important in the Cardiac Chain of Survival because
it helps circulate blood that contains oxygen to the vital organs until AED is ready to use or advanced medical personnel take over
When giving rescue breaths to an infant, you should
form an airtight seal around the infant’s mouth and nose
Where should you place your hands when giving chest compressions during CPR on an infant?
one hand on the forehead and two or three fingers on the center of the chest
How many initial rescue breaths should the first aider give?
2
If you do not see a child go unresponsive , the rescuer should
perform first aid for 2 minutes, then activate EMS
Always check for signs of life for no more than-
10 seconds
When performing CPR, how many compressions should be given?
30
When giving rescuse breaths each breath should last approximately?
1 second
The cycle of chest compressions and rescue breaths in CPR is
30 chest compressions for every 2 rescue breath
It is important to follow the links of the Cardiac Chain of Survival because:
It helps improve the chance of survival
Which is the third critical link in the chain of survival?
early defibrillation
(T, F) If a someone has a hairy chest and you can not get the AED pads to stick to the chest you will need to shave the chest.
True
(T, F) An AED is only to be used on a victim whose heart has stopped beating.
False
Place the AED pads
below the nipple line on both sides of the chest
Which are good locations for AEDs?
1.Stadiums
2.Airports and airplanes
3.Golf courses
Before using an AED
1.turn the AED on
2.give CPR until the AED is ready to be used
3.postion it next to the victim
While the AED analyzes the victim’s heart rhythm
Do NOT touch the victim
During ventricular fibrillation, the heart
quivers and cannot pump blood
Which is the most common abnormal heart rhythm in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in adults?
Ventricular fibrillation
An AED gives the victim a shock
when the shock button is pushed
First aid is intended to:
provide temporary help until proper medical care, if needed, is obtained.
The leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults is
unintentional injuries
Consent to give first aid must be obtained from every victim who is:
responsive, mentally competent of legal age.
A first aider must stay with the victim until another equally or better trained person takes over. Failure to do so would be considered:
abandonment
Supplies in a first aid kit should be customized to include those items likely to be used:
on a regular basis.
Who usually recognizes a situation as an emergency and acts to help the victim?
A bystander
What is the first action a bystander should take in an emergency?
Recognize the emergency.
Refusing to acknowledge an emergency is a strategy that can interfere with which emergency action?
Deciding to help
When calling 9-1-1, which of the following information should be given to the EMS dispatch?
The victim’s location and condition
Number of persons involved
Your name and the phone number you are calling from
The most common type of personal protective equipment available for first aiders to protect against blood borne pathogens is
gloves
Which three body systems include the most important and sensitive organs?
Respiratory, circulatory, nervous
The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called ________.
respiration
Which of the following statements is true concerning infants and children?
*Infants and children have smaller respiratory structures than adults do.
*Infants’ and children’s respiratory structures are more easily obstructed than are those of adults.
*Cardiac arrest in children usually results from respiratory arrest.
The average rate of breathing in an adult at rest is ________ breaths per minute
12 to 20
Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?
Veins
For an alert, responsive victim, you can evaluate his or her ability to remember by asking:
person, place, time, and event.
Which of the following indicates a breathing problem?
1. Snoring
2.Gurgling
3.Wheezing
If the unresponsive victim is breathing, the best position for the victim is:
on the side
Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels is:
a sign
PEARL is a mnemonic used when assessing the:
eyes
At the same time you check for responsiveness, you should look at the victim to see whether he or she ________.
is breathing
The ratio of compressions to breaths when performing adult CPR is:
30 compressions to 2 breaths.
When giving abdominal thrusts to a choking victim, where should you position your hands?
In the middle of the abdomen, just above the navel
The most common cause of airway obstruction in an unresponsive victim is:
the tongue
A victim’s chance of survival dramatically improves through:
early CPR
early defibrillation
When the heart stops beating
blood carrying oxygen becomes unavailable to the entire body.
Before using an AED:
1. give CPR until the AED is ready to be used
2. position it next to the victim.
3. turn on the AED
Verify no one is in contact with the victim:
during analysis & during the shock.
Which of the following statements about AEDs is true?
Remove patches containing medication (eg, nitroglycerin, nicotine, or pain medicine).
Shock occurs when body parts do not receive adequate:
oxygenated blood
The three major cardiovascular causes of shock include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
Respiratory insufficiency
Septic shock develops in some victims with:
bacterial infection
Anaphylactic shock
is a massive allergic reaction.
When treating a shock victim, the first aider should place blankets and/or coats:
under and over the victim.
Rapid blood loss of ____ quart(s) or more in an adult can lead to shock and death
1 quart
Which is the most serious type of bleeding?
Arterial
If a dressing becomes blood-soaked, what should be done?
Apply another dressing on top of the old one
Which of the following is a sign of internal bleeding?
1. Bruises of the skin
2. Fractured ribs or bruises on the chest
3. Vomiting or coughing up blood
To treat bruises, the first aider should:
apply an ice pack over the injury for 20 minutes
Which of the following are characteristics of open wounds?
1. Break in the skin surface
2. External bleeding
3. Possible infection
Which wound is smooth-edged?
Incision
Which wound involves the cutting or tearing off of a body part?
Amputation
What can safely be put on shallow wounds?
Antibiotic ointments, such as Neosporin
What are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound?
Throbbing pain
Pus discharge
Fever
What is the purpose of a dressing?
To control bleeding
To prevent infection
To absorb blood
Which of the following is used as a dressing?
Gauze pads
What is the purpose of a bandage?
To hold a dressing in place
Which bandage is most appropriate for use as a sling?
Triangular bandage
When using a cravat bandage for an injured eye, cover ________ to prevent the injured eye from moving
both eyes
An estimated 80% of all burn injuries occur
in the home
Which of the following are possible causes of thermal burns?
Contact with hot objects
Flammable vapor
Steam
An important fact related to chemical burns is
tissue destruction will continue until the chemical agent is removed
Burns that penetrate all the skin layers and into the underlying fat and muscle are considered:
third degree (full thickness).
The first step in caring for a burn victim with a first-degree or small second-degree burn is to:
run cold tap water over the area as soon as possible
A severe scalp wound may have an accompanying concussion plus:
skull fracture.
an impaled object.
a spinal injury
The first aider should place a victim with a scalp wound
with head and shoulders slightly elevated.
Which type of brain injury occurs when a blow to the head alters the function of the brain?
Concussion
A blow to the head strong enough to cause a contusion at the site of impact, as well as move the brain, causing it to hit the opposite side of the skull is a
coup-contrecoup injury
Acquired brain injuries can be categorized as:
anoxia
hypoxia
The condition where air fills a portion of the chest cavity is called ________.
pneumothorax
What is the primary symptom of fractured ribs?
pain
Signs and symptoms of flail chest include:
abnormal movement of part of the chest wall during breathing
What is the most important step in caring for a victim of an impaled object in the chest?
Stabilizing the object in place
Which symptom commonly accompanies a pelvis injury?
Severe pain
Shock
Massive internal blood loss
If the fracture results in the bone protruding through the skin, it is considered a(n)
open fracture
A fracture in which the bone is fragmented into more than two pieces is called
comminuted
What injury results when a joint comes apart and stays apart?
dislocation
Which joints are most often sprained?
Knees and ankles
Muscle contusions result from:
a blow to the muscle
Which type of injury results when a joint is torn or stretched?
sprain
Inflammation of a tendon from overuse is called ________.
tendonitis
How long and how frequently should cold be applied to the injured area during the first 24 to 48 hours?
20 to 30 minutes every 2 or 3 hours
When applying compression to an injured area, the first aider should use:
an elastic roller bandage
Tendonitis usually results from:
continuous overuse
What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
To reduce pain
To prevent damage to muscle, nerves, and blood vessels
To prevent a closed fracture from becoming an open fracture
Before applying a splint, you should always:
check CSM
If the victim has a possible spine injury as well as an extremity injury
splint the spine first by stabilization
A shoulder dislocation is most comfortable for the victim when
a pillow or blanket is placed between the injured arm and chest
The elbow must be splinted
in the position in which it is found
When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called ________.
a heart attack
Risk factors for heart disease that cannot be changed include which of the following?
Heredity
Risk factors for heart disease that can be changed include which of the following?
Diabetes
High blood pressure
Cigarette smoking
The chest discomfort of a heart attack may also be accompanied by:
shortness of breath.
sweating.
nausea.
Chest pain accompanied by cough, fever, and production of sputum is a sign of:
pneumonia
A ________ is anything that can harm someone if it is used in the wrong way, used by the wrong person, or used in the wrong amount.
poison
Alcohol is a ________.
depressant
The use of ________ may require the first aider to protect the victim from hurting him- or herself and others.
hallucinogens
Opiates have what effect on the body?
Relieve pain
If contact has been made with a poisonous plant, the victim should immediately:
wash with soap and water or rubbing alcohol
About 80% of all animal-bite injuries in the United States are caused by:
dogs
Deaths from animal attacks are almost always the result of:
pet dogs.
The virus causing rabies is usually spread through:
infected saliva
After dogs and cats, the animal most likely to bite a human is a ________.
human
What shape of wound do nonpoisonous snakes leave?
A horseshoe-shaped wound
The tightening of blood vessels in skin that is exposed to cold is called:
vasoconstriction
How can susceptibility to cold injuries be minimized?
Proper hydration and nutrition
Avoiding alcohol
Avoiding caffeine
Up to 50% of the body’s total heat production can be lost by radiation through the ________.
head
Which of the following can affect an individual’s susceptibility to cold injury?
Being physically unfit
Dehydration
Being very lean
When participating in outdoor activities during cold weather, you should wear ________ layers of carefully selected clothing.
three
What is a common reason for behavior changes?
Low blood glucose in a diabetic
Excessive cold or heat
Lack of oxygen
This type of depression typically follows a tragic event
Reactive
Which of the following statements concerning depression is accurate?
Do not discourage depressed persons from crying.
A depressed person needs sympathetic silence.
A depressed person needs empathetic reassurance.
Suicide is most common in men who are:
divorced
single.
widowed
Who is most likely to attempt suicide?
Persons who have made a previous suicide attempt
Persons who have detailed suicide plans
Persons who have a close relative who committed suicide
Wilderness first aid pertains to which of the following?
Recreation in the “wilderness”
Occupations in the “wilderness”
Residences in the “wilderness”
In cases of severe hypothermia, the first aider should:
not check the victim’s temperature.
handle the victim gently.
begin CPR and continue until the victim is evaluated by a healthcare provider
The main cause of death in a lightning strike victim is
cardiac arrest
Altitude illness includes:
acute mountain sickness (AMS).
high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE).
high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE).
Which natural disaster claims the most lives in the United States?
Lightning
Reach-throw-go identifies the sequence for which type of rescue?
Water rescue
Reaching for the victim requires:
an object that can be extended to the victim
Most drowning victims are males who are less than ____ years old.
30
If a near-drowning victim was diving:
suspect a possible spine injury
Cold-water immersion is associated with which two potential medical emergencies?
Drowning and hypothermia
If you are indoors during an earthquake, you should:
take cover under a sturdy desk or table
If you are trapped in debris after an earthquake:
tap on a pipe or wall so that rescuers can find you.
During a heat wave, you should:
stay in the coolest available location
If trapped in a vehicle during a winter storm:
exercise to maintain body heat
If you are unable to evacuate your home during a hazardous materials incident:
use plastic sheeting and tape to secure doors and windows
Humans lose heat largely through their
skin
You are getting enough water if you are producing clear urine at least ________ times a day.
five
Water intoxication results from:
drinking large amounts of water
Two types of heatstroke are
classic and exertional
The first step in caring for a heatstroke victim is to
move the victim to a cool place.
Another name for the placenta is the ________.
afterbirth
If a woman in labor feels she has to move her bowels, delivery:
is imminent.
During which stage of labor does the amniotic sac break?
First
A newborn should begin to breathe:
within 30 seconds
What is the risk in a prolapsed umbilical cord presentation?
Suffocation of the baby

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