Federal Budgeting: An Article Analysis
This research analyzes the article “Making “Common Sense: of Federal Budgeting: An Article Analysis.” The results of the analysis are presented in relation to (1) study background, (2) research foundation, and (3) value of the study.
The author expressed the purpose of this article as follows: “This essay will highlight some points about budgeting, especially federal budgeting, that are revealed by making the comparison with financial planning for individuals or households carefully, rather than casually.” The use of the word “essay” by the author in describing the purpose of the article provides a strong indication that this article is not a “research” article. This article was published first in the Spring of 1998. No actual research study was performed in relation to the article. The article was written by Joseph White of Carleton College. The author is identified in the article as a distinguished visiting professor of political science. Thus, the author possesses the bonafides to write this article.
The literature reported in the article documents the fact that federal budgeting is a controversial process that almost invariably leads to frustrating and disappointing outcomes. This literature supported the need for further explanation of the federal budgeting process, and such further explanation is provided in the article.
The author formulated and investigated no research questions. Hypotheses were neither formulated nor tested through the conduct of this study. Thus, there were no independent, dependent, or control variables identified, defined, or used in the study.
There was no study setting, sample, or population, as no research study was reported in this article. There was no research design, use of statistical procedures, or type of research involved, as this article was an essay and not a research study.
The author concluded that politics and “pub