Macroeconomic Determinants Regarding Inflation In Vietnam Economics Essay

Real world job

Pumping is considered a severe menace to economic wellness, since it causes the cost of life in order to lift and the value of investings to fall. In the instance of Vietnam, the state received high degree of growing prices throughout a long period 1995-2010, on mean seven % /year, that is a lot more relentless and more unstable than those of additional states in the Southeast Asian countries. As a consequence, strong rising prices has already been a high precedence of the Vietnamese authorities. Within order to contend towards rising prices successfully, discover of its determiners is of great importance. Understanding typically the causes of the issue is usually indispensable for updating current policies to stifle growing prices and stabilise typically the macro economic system.

Scientific job

There have recently been many empirical surveies about the determiners of increasing prices in Vietnam. These surveies cover different video spans. However, many of them were performed for the period prior to 2005. Therefore, this document fills a clip propagate. Furthermore, the survey in addition to utilizes a longer video span, which will provide a more precise transmission into the issue.

Furthermore, recent events like the fall ining WTO associated with Vietnam in 2007, typically the planetary fiscal crisis 2007-2008, crisp fluctuation in typically the universe oil and yellow metal monetary value, and the trade rate job have posed the demand for a greater distance survey on rising rates in the new circumstance.

2. Analysis inquiries

Key inquiry:

What are determiners of rising prices in Vietnam over the period 1995-2010?


Exactly what are the short-term determiners of rising prices inside Vietnam over the time period 1995-2010?

What are long-term determiners of growing prices in Vietnam on the period 1995-2010?

3. Literature


Demand-pull rising prices

Demand-pull rising prices happens when the degree of aggregative demand grows faster than the implicit in degree of supply.

Aggregate demand is manufactured up of all payment in the economic program.

AD sama dengan C + I and up. G + ( X-M )

Exactly where:

C stands for consumer outgo.

I stands regarding investing.

H stands for the regulators outgo.

Ten and M severally stand for exports and imports.

Figure 1: demand-pull rising prices

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Demand-pull rising prices may get down with any aspect that increases aggregative demand. Consumers may pass more, possibly because involvement rates have fallen, revenue enhancements are actually cut or merely because there is a greater degree of consumer assurance. Businesses may put more with outlook of future net income. The authorities may pass more on substructure, wellness, instruction, defense mechanism, etc . It may besides be a roar in export overseas.

Cost-push rising prices

Cost-push rising prices is an rising prices that consequences from an initial addition in costs.

There are two chief beginnings of increased expenses

An addition in pay rate

An addition in the monetary value of natural stuffs, such as oil.

Figure 2: Cost-push rising prices

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Monetarist placement

Monetarists believe the most important factor act uponing rising prices or deflation is how fast the amount of money supply grows or psychiatrists. They emphasize the function of pecuniary policy a lot better than financial policy in commanding rising prices. Harmonizing to the celebrated monetarist economic expert Milton Friedman, “ Inflation is ever and everyplace a pecuniary phenomenon. ”

This theory begins with the equation of exchange:



M is the nominal measure of money.

V will be the speed of money in concluding outgos;

P is the general monetary value degree;

Q is definitely an index of the existent value of concluding outgos;

Monetarists assume that V is unaffected by pecuniary policy ( at least in the long tally ), and Q is determined in the long tally by the productive capacity in the economic system. Under these premises, the primary driver of P is alterations in M. In other words additions in the money supply would take to rising prices. The message is easy; command the money supply to command rising prices.

Figure 3: Relationship among money supply, measure of money, value of money and monetary value degree.

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Empirical survey

There have been many empirical surveies on rising prices in Vietnam. In the most recent research “ Macroeconomic Determinants of Vietnam ‘ s Inflation 2000-2010: Evidence and Analysis ”, Nguyen Thi Thu Hang and Nguyen Duc Thanh have developed an intercrossed theoretical account of rising prices determiners that comprise both the structural attack and the monetarist attack every bit good as employed Vector Error Correction Model ( VECM ) econometric technique to come to the undermentioned consequences

( 1 ) Public ‘ s memory and outlook play an important function in determining the current rising prices. Memory in regards to a period of high rising prices in the yesteryear seems merely to get down to melt off after 6 months of systematically low and stable rising prices.

( 2 ) The velocity of accommodation of the foreign exchange market and the money market to perturbations is really low or even near nothing.

( 3 ) Stimulating the existent marketplace through increasing productiveness and end product growing has better impact on commanding rising prices in the longer run than pecuniary and nonmonetary steps.

( 4 ) In contrast to old survey consequences, the theoretical account found considerable function of exchange rate, a devaluation in peculiar, on increasing force per unit areas on rising prices.

4. Conceptual model

Inflation = degree Fahrenheit ( GDP, old rising prices, exchange rate, involvement rate, money supply, recognition, universe oil monetary value, universe rice value, cumulative budget shortages, pay rate )

3 channels:

Price degree

Aggregate demand

1. Interest rate

2. M2

3. Recognition

4. GDP

5. Budget shortage

Aggregate supply

1. Wage price

2. World oil monetary value

3. World rice value

4. Exchange rate


1. Previous twelvemonth rising prices


Monthly secondary informations covering the period from January 95 to December 2010 are used for this survey. These informations are collected from the General Statistics Office ( GSO ), State Bank of Vietnam ( SBV ), Ministry of Fund ( MOF ), International Monetary Fund ( IMF ), and World Lender ( WB )



Consumer price index

monthly rising prices informations are collected from GSO. The index is rebased to January 1995

Money supply ( M2 )

International fiscal statistics ( IFS ), IMF data informations base


International monetary fund

Rate of interest

regular monthly informations on loaning costs from SBV

Exchange rate

day-to-day official exchange prices ( VND/USD ) are usually collected from SBV. Month-to-month official exchange rates are usually calculated by taking the norm of the everyday official exchange rates within each month.

Accumulative budget shortage




Wage rate

World essential oil monetary value

The usa ‘ s Energy Info

Administration ( EIA )

World rice monetary value

International Rice Research Institute ( IRRI )

a few. Research approach

The survey uses quantitative method to place the determiners of rising prices within Vietnam. The survey contains the undermentioned stairss

Unit root testing: The first measure is always to look into the established of informations series regardless of whether they are stationary. Optimized Dickey-Fuller ( ADF ) trial is used to be able to deduce the accurate choice on unit roots associated with the variables. The physique of slowdowns in ADF trial is selected centered on Akaike Information Qualifying criterion ( AIC ) and Schawarz Information Criterion ( SIC ).

Cointegration analysis: Johansen cointegration trial is used to check into for long run relationships among variables of the theoretical account.

Vector mistake modification theoretical account ( VECM ):

VECM is used to assess the short-term kineticss of the series. The VECM is a constrained signifier of VAR that incorporates co-integration limitations. This particular specification restricts the conduct of co-integrating variables to meet to their long-term equilibrium. Furthermore, this specification permits a broad range of short-run kineticss. VECM is used to show the determiners of month to month per centum alteration in domestic rising prices.

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