Parental involvement through Sexuality Education in Singapore.

In position of a more broad and open-minded society, young persons are progressively receptive to new thoughts, and are easy and most influenced by the mass media. This is supported from our primary research, where pupils are asked on the grade of influence of the parents, teachers/counselors, equals and the media have on them in footings of supplying them with cognition and advice sing sex instruction.

The advancement of mass media has overtaken the current steps initiated by MOE in encompassing healthy development of gender amongst the younger coevals in Singapore. This is farther substantiated by the increasing tendency[ 4 ]of teenage gestations and sexually familial infections ( STIs ) , where they are prosecuting in sexual activities at a far younger age.

Therefore, the function of parents in gender instruction is important in educating their kids about sex in an environment of openness, thereby heightening kids ‘s understanding on topic. The current attack of leting parents to hold the option of choosing out their kids from gender negotiations provided by the school contradicts with base of MOE recognizing that parents are the most of import pedagogue in gender instruction[ 5 ]. Mentioning to our primary informations gathered, 66 % of the pupils surveyed feel that parents are non making adequate and are non actively involved in their gender instruction. Therefore, by supplying parents with the opt-out option, it does non to the full prosecute or include them in educating their kids and hence it is an unequal attack taken by the MOE.

As compared to parents who are still encompassing the more conservative Asiatic values, young persons have immensely conflicting values and this consequences in differences between their mentalities wholly. Regardless of their backgrounds, parents have to step in and be responsible in educating their kids on gender issues. However, there is trouble in this as most parents are uncomfortable[ 6 ]with discoursing these issues with their kids. This is a consequence of the new mentality of our coevals on the subject of gender.

To counter the job, the MOE should join forces more closely with parents in order to relieve the conflicting values of parents and young persons with a more holistic course of study that is, besides, more applicable to our coevals of young persons. Hence, the options must supply a strong and broad scope of accomplishments to adolescents in the dealing of gender issues. This subject is highly of import, as it addresses the younger population, who will organize the majority of our hereafter stakeholders in Singapore.

Purposes and Aims

We aim to authorise parents with better accomplishments and cognition in educating their kids on gender issues. Our aims are to:

To open up parents towards discoursing the sensitive subject of gender to their kids.

To advance effectual parent-child communicating.

To enable pupils think through the possible effects of their determinations instead than turn them off with a moralistic attack.

Scope of undertaking

Target Audience

Parents: Our primary mark audience is parents of pupils from Raffles Girls ‘ School ( Secondary ) and Raffles Institution ( Secondary ) .

Students: Our secondary mark audience is pupils from secondary schools.

Research Focus

With the chief focal point on increasing parental engagement in gender instruction, we plan to transport out our undertaking over a span of 5 months through a multi-tiered attack ; encapsulating both the affected group ( Youth ) every bit good as the wider community they are a portion of ( Families/parents and School ) , covering our primary purpose ( healthy development of gender for young persons ) .

Research Methodology

Primary Data

We interviewed Mr Leo Hee Khian[ 7 ], a pupil Advisor from Raffles Instituition.

Online studies were given out to secondary school pupils from authorities and independent[ 8 ]schools. This is to guarantee a better representative of the pupil population in Singapore as schools transporting Integrated Programmes may offer a different attack in transporting out their gender instruction plan to their pupils.

Surveies were besides distributed to parents through the Raffles Parents ‘ Association ( RPA )[ 9 ]and Parents for Raffles Girls ‘ School AssociationA ( PRGS Association )[ 10 ]to garner information on their beliefs and mentalities sing the current teaching method and course of study of Singapore ‘s gender instruction so as to assist us craft a better method of direction.

Secondary Datas

As gender instruction is a sensitive yet of import issue, there have been many active treatments on online forums every bit good as newspaper articles associating to the content of its course of study. There are a assortment of published studies and diaries on all facets of gender instruction which are available for reappraisal. We reviewed several instance surveies of different states utilizing the internet resources on how they deliver their course of study, providing to kids and young persons of different age groups. The function of parents in educating their immature is besides studied to garner information on how they can lend most efficaciously in developing their kids.

Chapter 2 – Case STUDY: Netherlands AND USA



The Dutch Model was formulated, concentrating on ’empowerment and common regard ‘ in a relationship among young persons. aˆ¦aˆ¦ + parent engagement


The Dutch Model provides accurate information sing hazards associated with pre-marital sex and equal information sing contraceptive method and birth control methods. It focuses on values, attitudes, communications and dialogue accomplishments. It helps young persons to cover with equal and other societal force per unit areas ; supplying chances to pattern communicating, dialogue and averment accomplishments.


Sexuality instruction course of study might non be comprehendible to immature kids and therefore the effectivity of course of study may be questioned. As gender is a sensitive subject, it may do parents to choose their kids out of the programme. The Dutch Model does non extinguish the hazard of gestations or STDS as it excludes the instruction of prophylactic methods to young persons.

United States of America ( USA )


Sexual activity instruction in USA chiefly focuses on recommending abstention, but more schools are now offering abstinence-plus course of study[ 11 ]. There are many sellers and organisations which have assorted programmes[ 12 ]catered to different age group and a scope of socio-economic background, such as white middle-class, African-americans, hapless, parents of 11-15 old ages old.


Through abstention and abstinence-plus course of study, the values of abstention can play an of import function in assisting adolescents in defying the media and peer force per unit area, as the young persons are populating in a sex-saturated civilization where holding insouciant sex is the norm.

The abstinence-only course of study[ 13 ]focal points on two tined attack: It places more accent on societal, emotional and psychological facets of sex ; it besides educates adolescents sing love, familiarity and committedness. On the other manus, the abstinence-plus course of study seeks to cut down teenage gestations and STDs as a consequence from “ unprotected ” sexual activity ; hence it teaches adolescents sing contraceptive method methods. Coupled with direct support[ 14 ]and support for the abstention programme by the authorities, it allows more resources to be pulled in for a more effectual gender instruction.

Based on studies[ 15 ]conducted, consequences has shown that there is overpowering parental support for abstention course of study. Furthermore, since many parents in America are Christians, coupled with the fact that the bulk of the faith in America preaches abstention ( no sex until matrimony ) , every bit good as many abstention related subjects ( love, committedness, etc ) , this will intend that most parents are to the full cognizant of what their kids are being taught in schools. Thus they can complement the current gender course of study, doing it more effectual.


With the approachs of our X-generation young persons, the thought of abstention may non be relevant with the modern American society and civilization. Adolescents are holding a more broad mentality, chiefly as a consequence of the mass media. Surveies[ 16 ]conducted showed that holding pre-marital sex is the norm for many adolescents as a consequence of many factors, such as equal force per unit area and the modern dad civilization.

While schools are mostly involved in battle against teenage gestations, there is no standard course of study taught to pupils throughout every school[ 17 ]. Not all parents are agreeable on the content of course of study due to differing positions as a consequence of spiritual or race differences as some faiths[ 18 ]may non favor the abstention or abstention plus-approach.

Similarities drawn

USA was chosen as the 2nd instance as it is a really developed state with its people holding a really broad mentality, and this is something we aspire for Singapore to accomplish, where parents and kid will happen it less awkward and more comfy in discuss gender. Furthermore, both America and Singapore ‘s gender instruction both accents on abstention, hence, by larning the attack and the ( positive and negative ) deductions of America ‘s gender instruction, we can so use it to Singapore ‘s context. Like Singapore, USA is a multi-racial state and hence this will no uncertainty impact the attack to learning gender instruction as a consequence of differing positions.

Chapter 3 – Singapore

Current Tendencies on gender instruction

MOE set a model on the gender instruction course of study which all schools have to follow. The cardinal guiding rules of gender instruction are:

Parents bear the chief duty for the gender instruction of their kids ;

Sexuality instruction is premised on the importance of the heterosexual married household as the basic unit of society ;

The instruction of facts is integrated with the instruction of values, which reflect that of the mainstream society ;

Students will be taught to understand and esteem the attitudes, values and beliefs sing gender that other communities propagate ;

Specially selected and trained instructors are to learn the Turning Years bundle ; and relevant resources in the community will be brought in to complement school resources for gender instruction.

This model encourages parents to be actively involved in educating their kids as they “ bear the chief duty ” . While all authorities secondary schools are to follow the Turning Old ages[ 19 ]series and independent schools may hold their ain programmes, parents are able to hold the option of choosing out their kids from the gender instruction bundle.

Alternatively, schools may prosecute external sellers[ 20 ]approved by MOE. The current approved external administrations conduct programmes in the signifier of workshop and seminars as a teaching method of learning gender instruction, which merely a few includes the engagement of parents.

The demand for affecting parents

As parents are given the opt-in and opt-out option, this suggests that the gender instruction in Singapore is non a fool-proof program. Essential issues affecting the cognitive, emotional, societal, physical and moral facets of gender may be neglected by parents who chose to choose out their kids from the programme. Embraced by conservative Asiatic values, these parents have non yet been fused with the broad and unfastened mentality that our universe today portions. Furthermore, a big per centum, 70 % , of the young persons we surveyed felt that their parents were non being actively involved plenty in their gender instruction.

Besides, merely one-fourth of the young persons objected to their parents being involved in their gender instruction. Through research, we found that parents have a large influence in the determinations teens make about sex below the age of 16[ 21 ]. However, from the consequences[ 22 ]we gathered from our study, it seems that many parents are non cognizant of the importance on the influence they have on their kids ‘s determination devising. Hence, it is evident that we have to bridge this spread in thought and acquire the parents more actively involved in their kids gender instruction programme.

Lessons Learnt

Assurance is cardinal

Constructing good resonance between parents and kid is of import in interrupting down coevals spread as in enhances effectual communicating. This will greatly cut down the extent of differing/conflicting positions and beliefs, enabling parents to supply accurate information sing gender issues to their kids.

Parents are found to possess accomplishments of being an pedagogue, and their natural function in sex instruction is apparent. Yet many parents are non recognizing their full potency as an pedagogue due to grounds such as being uncomfortable in speaking with their kids about the topic and besides deficiency of cognition about anatomy, physiology, or other related information. Hence, they frequently feel diffident and embarrassed to keep treatments due to the deficiency of assurance in educating kids on gender. Therefore, bureaus should see incorporating parents to the full into their wellness instruction schemes.

Making consciousness of course of study amongst parents

While the school provides basic sex instruction, parents must be cognizant that the cognition and information presented or taught in schools are merely auxiliary, and parents themselves play a polar function in educating their kids at place, since morality issues sing sex are largely non covered in schools[ 23 ]. Therefore moral issues and duty must be taught by the parents of the kid when it comes to sex.

The influence of mass media

Any parent can certify to the waxy, unquestioning and imitative nature of their kid, and since the mass media is one of the most outstanding beginnings of the kid ‘s mentality of the outside universe, the changeless repeat of sexual contents on the telecasting will no uncertainty act upon the kid ‘s mentality to a certain extent.

Developed Schemes

Equiping parents

Schools can prosecute professionals, experts and even successful parents to present presentations or keep little workshops. Awareness is therefore developed among parents on the importance of keeping conversations with their kids sing gender instruction.

Parent -Teacher coaction

To prosecute pupils through coaction between parents and instructors in planing an effectual usage of teaching method within the programme.

Prosecuting young persons and parents on the net

Making a forum to keep treatments enable young persons to freely show their positions or sentiments sing gender. Acknowledging that most thoughts conveyed by equals and the media may be misdirecting, we decided to lasso in trainers/ counselors qualified in the field of gender instruction to rectify any misconception young persons may hold, and to supply proper advice to them. Besides, by prosecuting parents to supervise these forums, they are able to lend to the treatment by posting their positions at the same clip. This will profit parents greatly, leting them to hold a general deeper apprehension in young persons

Proposed Options

Parent Education Programs

Schools may tie-in school events with parent instruction plans to better grownups ‘ accomplishments for educating and pass oning with young person, particularly about gender and generative wellness.


Reviewing the bringing of gender instruction programme

The Raffles Parents ‘ Association can keep a meeting with instructors every 6 months to reexamine the teaching method of presenting the programme. During their reappraisals, they should include the positions of parents about the content of the gender instruction programme that ought to be taught in school. The ground being that parents have a better thought of what their striplings ‘ mentality are about the subject of sex every bit good as the exposure that their teens have on the subject. This can be done by holding feedbacks from parents online through the Raffles portal web site, for easiness of communicating. With these feedbacks and reappraisals, our school can hold a more efficient, relevant and effectual manner of presenting gender instruction messages to pupils every bit good as holding a more impactful one.

Involving experts into young person online forums

As opposed to parents restricting the inflow of information from the mass media which is highly impractical, on-line portals ( e.g. ) can be developed for striplings to portion their ideas on the subject of gender. A gender instruction forum will be designed in the on-line portal such that unfastened and healthy treatments can be fostered, on occasion with the advice of experts. Young persons are able to present inquiries and they are responded by qualified[ 24 ]trainers and counselors in this field.

Chapter 4: Action Plan

Parent Education Programme ( PEP )

Key Players / Stakeholders


Secondary schools serve as a platform in enabling parents to take part in the plans easy as their kids maintain them updated with approaching of import school events. Our mark group will be Raffles Girls ‘ School ( Secondary ) and Raffles Institution ( Secondary ) in peculiar.

Non-Governmental Organisations ( NGOs )[ 25 ]

NGOs have the power to consequence widespread alteration & A ; topographic point force per unit area on other cardinal participants to pull off the tendencies. Examples of relevant expertness are the Institute of Advanced Parentology[ 26 ]( IAP ) , Focus on the Family[ 27 ]. Experts, professionals and facilitators in the relevant Fieldss will be invited.

Successful parents

Parents who have successfully overcome their fright and/or embarrassment in pass oning with their kid sing gender issues will be invited to talk.

Rationale for our proposed action plan/ class of action

Tiing up with two of import school maps such as Briefings to Secondary 1-4 Parents ( held at the start of the every twelvemonth the school principal ) and Parent-Teacher Meetings ( held in the 2nd semester every twelvemonth ) will be utile in capturing a broad audience. This programme is to supply accomplishments to parents to pass on with striplings through these two synergistic workshops. Parents will therefore be more equipped in educating their kids about healthy sexual development and determination devising.

Action Plan

The organizing commission of the several school maps will include a short Parent Education Programme workshop where presentations are held by wellness professionals and rearing experts from assorted NGOs of relevant field. More male facilitators will besides be invited instead than most of the clip merely female facilitators are present. This is to promote more engagement of male parents because same-sex parent-child communicating at place tends to work better[ 28 ]. Successful parents will be engaged to portion their experience on how they dealt with challenges while educating their kids on gender issues. They will be able to supply information parents want and need every bit good as reference the concerns and frights of the audience. These real-life illustrations will enable parents to get cognition and information on how unfastened communicating can be cultivated in order to portion their values and beliefs with their kids efficaciously, while going more sceptered to go effectual gender pedagogues of their kids.

A mass get offing parents via the school depicting the plan will inform parents about the inside informations of the available workshops. These workshops, binding in with school maps, will be scheduled on weekends ( Saturday and Sunday ) so as to avoid upseting their work agendas during weekdays.


Parent negotiations are extremely executable as it has been done in most schools. However, it is hard to aim all parents to remain on for negotiations given their busy daily agendas and other committednesss. They may hold work duties, peculiarly amongst the low income groups or households with exclusive breadwinners, where gender instruction may non be perceived as of import in such households.


To do the programme an impactful one, advanced and synergistic presentation techniques[ 29 ]can be used in carry oning this workshop to capture the involvement of audience efficaciously. Besides, inducements can be offered to promote greater engagement in workshops, including light refreshments and awards such as verifiers and rearing books.

Reviewing the bringing of gender instruction programme

Key Players / Stakeholders

Raffles Parents ‘ Association ( RPA ) and Parents of Raffles Girls ‘ School Association ( PRGS Association )

Parent support groups for the Raffles household. They represent the proportion of parents in Raffles, supervising general affairs in and out of the course of study.


They are the chief beginning of medium in school which pupils get their gender instruction from. They deliver the course of study and impart accomplishments and cognition to pupils.

Rationale for our proposed action plan/ class of action

Through the reappraisal of the course of study, parents will hold a better thought of their striplings ‘ mentality on the subject of gender every bit good as the exposure that they have on the subject. Hence, parents can supply valuable feedbacks and positions as to what should be included or emphasised on during the instruction of gender instruction to pupils.

Action Plan

Feedbacks are to be collected from parents through the RPA and PRGS Association online portals for the easiness of communicating. Besides, we can use our Raffles chief web site to associate parents to the portals for more convenience. The RPA and PRGS Association will keep a meeting with instructors at least one time every 6 months to reexamine the content and the teaching method of the gender instruction course of study designed by the Raffles schools. Valuable and insightful feedbacks from parents should be brought Forth in these meetings, to be discussed and considered amongst the instructors and members of RPA and PRGS Association.


For this proposed option to be successful, we need the cooperation of parents to be actively involved and concerned about the contents taught to their kids on the subject of gender. They have to cognize that they play a large function in their gender instruction.

Additionally, male childs and misss differing biological make-up and hence, some content taught may non be relevant to each gender if sexuality instruction is taught to youth in general. Some of import sections[ 30 ]are therefore left out which might be built-in to the physical and psychological development of young persons.


A different course of study can be catered to different gender to accommodate each gender ‘s demands consequently. All schools, depending if they are coeducational schools, may follow two course of studies providing for each gender, so that gender instruction can be taught individually for the misss and male childs.

Involving experts into online forums

Key Players / Stakeholders

A reputable online portal which discusses a assortment of subjects related to the current universe today. Outstanding subjects are put into forums, where netizens are accessible to the latest intelligence and treatments. There is besides a forum named SgSexForums dedicated to discussion about gender, and we are looking at incorporating gender instruction into this forum. .

Professionals and experts

They will be invited to be on the panel of forum, so as to react to any questions or positions posed by young persons. They are trained experts from local gender instruction sellers which are approved by MOE, every bit good as advisers and professionals majoring in the development of young person.

Young persons

Youths serves as an of import voice for parents to hold a deeper apprehension on their positions and concerns. This can assist to contract the communicating spread between the two coevalss as parents are more cognizant of their demands and wants sing gender instruction.


Given primary positions expressed by pupils in the forum, schools will work around the demands and wants of the pupils, giving feedbacks to the MOE. Understanding what young persons are concerned with, a more convincing course of study can so be developed to turn to their demands.

Rationale for our proposed action plan/ class of action

Forums by and large receive much attending from the Singaporean young person communities, and web portals such as STOMP and are known to stand for the voice of the young person society. Although earlier research findings showed that media platforms render young persons susceptible to negative messages about gender, however we still believe that they are powerful tools through which we can set our thoughts across. We are looking at accommodating mass media and healthy treatment of gender issues, and this can be achieved through online forums discoursing about the local gender instruction. Through proper designing of the forums and prosecuting trained experts on the relevant subjects, we believe these online forums will assist to guarantee a more unfastened gender instruction excluding the restraints of school course of study, whereby young persons can do themselves heard. This helps us to accomplish our aim of a more open-minded society towards gender issues, which is instrumental in assisting parents take charge of their kids ‘s sexual good being.

Action Plan

Two separate forums will be set up in the on-line portal catered to both young persons and parents. All stations are accessible to the populace, and this allows each stakeholder to be cognizant of the different point of views that youths or parents have. Certified experts from sex instruction sellers will be invited to originate unchained treatment about gender, and besides answer assorted questions that youths or parents might hold. In add-on, we will prosecute parent support groups to supervise these forums and input their ain experiences, furthering healthy argument. As such, any deceptive positions will be corrected by qualified professionals, forestalling young persons from obtaining wrong information from undependable beginnings on the cyberspace.


Popular local web forums like STOMP ( Youthphoria ) and promote unconstrained treatments about societal issues, and promote young persons to portion about their perceptual experiences of the universe around them. Many forums are besides initiated by young persons to discourse the quality of their gender instruction. One restriction, nevertheless, would be that the forums might be prone to defamatory and provocative remarks by insensitive users.


Inappropriate remarks may be marked as Spam by other users, automatically concealing the remark. Besides, parent support groups can be tasked to take charge of these forums as decision makers, chiefly to fuel healthy argument about gender issues based on their ain experiences.

Benefits of our program

Primary Data

We managed to acquire consequences from a relevant yet broad spectrum of the population. This is apparent from the ages of the respondents, which range from 13-18 every bit good as their educational degree which include pupils from the secondary degree and junior colleges. There is besides an about equal mix of responses from both males and females every bit good. With this, we can do certain that we can do certain that the spread across the population is non biased in any manner due to unsimilarities between the above groups ( e.g. hormonal differences, difference in academic demands ) and therefore can convey representative consequences of all young persons in general as required by our undertaking subject.

Chapter 5: Decision


Through this undertaking, we have gained a many-sided apprehension of the gender instruction state of affairs in Singapore, through surveying and questioning our cardinal stakeholders. Value-added by extended research online, we are now cognizant of the assorted cognition spreads in the course of study and our developed schemes can efficaciously decide them. For illustration, one contradiction we identified would be that MOE allows parents to choose out of the course of study, even though they stress the importance of parental engagement in school-based gender instruction.

Translating our programs into world, through prosecuting trained experts to reply assorted questions posed by young persons and parents, we are guaranting that young persons do non have the incorrect information or acquire misled by undependable beginnings from the cyberspace. Furthermore, our Parent Education Programme ( PEP ) serves to increase parental consciousness about their kids ‘s wellbeing at school, even if parents opt their kids out of the gender instruction course of study. Ultimately, we aim at heightening parent-child communicating and deciding the contradictions in the current course of study through our developed schemes.


Inaccuracy in study responses from pupils and parents

There is a chance of them non being honest in replying inquiries due to conservative nature and sensitiveness of subject.

Adolescents ‘ opposition to parental engagement

Young persons may be uncomfortable in showing their positions in forums in the presence of parents. Without striplings ‘ engagement, the on-line portal will non be effectual in functioning as a platform for active and unfastened treatments for both stakeholders.

Possible Improvements

An betterment would be spread outing the range to provide to assorted faiths. Since Singapore is a multi-racial society, some faiths may non prophesy values that are in line with what MOE offers on abstention and the instruction of preventives. This would ensue in a struggle of involvements among the pedagogues, parents, spiritual organisations and the adolescents themselves, who might be diffident as to which philosophy to follow. Hence, it would be best to develop a scheme that would extensively provide to the distinguishable faiths in Singapore. This will let parents to be more positive in imparting their support, after cognizing that their faiths ‘ philosophies tie in with the proposed scheme.

Future Developments

We hope to widen the undertaking by including parents from other Secondary Schools. We can utilize the consequences obtained from RI and RGS to estimate the effectivity of our proposed options and do farther betterments. Successful parents, who have benefited from the options proposed, can portion their penetrations and lessons learnt from them, during the PEP conducted in other Secondary Schools.


Web sites:

Release of the turning old ages series for upper secondary: Sense and Sexuality. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Japan: A new spin on Sexual activity Education for a Sexier New Generation. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

MOE ‘s Sexuality Education in Schools. Retrieved 17 June 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //’s-sexuality-education-in-schools.html & gt ;

MOE ‘s Scope and Teaching Approach if Sexuality Education in Schools. Retrieved 17 June 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

HPB – Parents ‘ function in sex instruction. Retrieved 17 June 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // id=7162 & gt ;

Focus on the Family Singapore. Retrieved 17 June 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // cat=51 & gt ;

Focus on the Family – studies on parents ‘ rating. Retrieved 17 June 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // Sex- Education-Programs & gt ;

Students ‘ positions on Sex Ed Curriculum. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // cp-documentid=3956054 & gt ;

ADVERT. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Advocates for Young person: Parents ‘ Sexual activity Ed Centre. Retrieved 23 July, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & A ; task=view & A ; id=108 & A ; Itemid=206 & gt ;

On-line Diaries and Articles:

Aaron Ng, 19 December 2006: Prenuptial Sexual activity: Whose load? Retrieved 8 May 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Teaching about sex ca n’t be separated from learning values. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Teaching abstention wo n’t make. Recover 8 May 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Model to Comprehensive Sexuality Education – IPPF Framework. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Review and Rationale for Involving Parents in Health Promotion. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20Review % 20and % 20Rationale % 20for % 20Involving % 20Parents.pdf & gt ;

Publius terentius afer, 28 December 2008: Let ‘s speak sex. Retrieved 8 May 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Impact of a theoretically based sex instruction programme ( SHARE ) delivered by instructors on NHS registered constructs and expirations: concluding consequences of bunch randomised test. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

MOE investigates ailments over AWARE ‘s Sex Ed programme. Retrieved 23 July 2010, from

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Joost Van loon: Deconstructing the Dutch Utopia. Retrieved 23 July 2009, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Gayane Ghukasyan, Addressing HIV/AIDS through School-Based Education Programme. Retrieved 29 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Yoshiro Hatano and Tsuguo Shimazaki: Demographics and a Historical Perspective. Retrieved 29 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // # 1 & gt ;

Sexual activity Education and a scriptural position. Retrieved 29 July 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Parents and Sex Education. Retrieved 21 August 10, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Parents Speak Up National Campaign Encourages Parent-Child Communication about Sex, Study Finds. Retrieved 21 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Involving Parents in Reproductive Health Education for Youth. Retrieved 22 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20FOCUS/inv_parents.htm & gt ;

Larry G. Brady: How to Raise Kids without Climbing the Walls. Retrieved 22 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & A ; pg=PA94 & A ; lpg=PA94 & A ; dq=psychological+impacts+of+premarital+sex & A ; source=bl & A ; ots=mEZkGOHwn8 & A ; sig=7DcootQgLDKMV1P_n3lY-pfn0hw & A ; hl=en & A ; ei=bc1XTL7DAYy5rAfo86mOBQ & A ; sa=X & A ; oi=book_result & A ; ct=result & A ; resnum=6 & A ; ved=0CDEQ6AEwBQ # v=onepage & A ; q & A ; f=false & gt ;

Involving Parents In Reproductive Health Decisions. Retrieved from 22 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Joy L Walker: A qualitative survey of parents ‘ experiences of supplying sex instruction for their kids: The deductions for wellness instruction. Retrieved 22 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

State Policies in Brief: Sexual activity and STI/HIV Education. Retrieved 27 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Religious Communities and Sexuality Education. Retrieved 27 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Patricia Donovan, July/August 1998: School-Based Sexuality Education: The Issues and Challenges. Retrieved 27 August 2010, from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Newspaper Articles:

Sharon Jason, ( 22 August 2010 ) How the USA compares in learning teens about sex, USA TODAY.

Tan, H.Y. and Teo E. , ( 21 August 2010 ) , Sex Education: Too small, excessively late, and excessively obscure? , The Straits Times

Serene Goh, ( 21 August 2010 ) , Let ‘s talk with kids about sex, The Straits Times

Tan, H.Y. , ( 21 August 2010 ) , Asia dawdling in gender instruction, The Straits Times

Leow, S.W. , Ong, C. , ( 21 August 2010 ) , St Patrick ‘s objects to condom picture, The Straits Times

Charissa Yong, ( 12 August 2010 ) , No sex please, we ‘re Chinese, The Straits Times

Liew H.Q. , ( 29 July 2010 ) , Schools engaging sex instruction experts once more, The Straits Times

Liew H.Q. , ( 30 April 2010 ) , Govt calls for more transparence in gender instruction, The Straits Times

Amelia Tan, Theresa Tan and Yeo Sam Jo, ( 25 May 2009 ) , Sex instruction: Experts identify 2 ‘weak links ‘ , The Straits Times

Irene Tan, ( 9 February 2010 ) , Aware bows out of sex instruction for now, The Straits Times


Sexual activity instruction for kids

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // v=aMf0WbB-F4I & gt ;

Health Promotion Board – ‘Choices ‘ Teen Sexuality Education

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // v=B6acvEJRzxo & gt ;

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