Personality Final Ch. 12-14

Personality Final Ch. 12-14

The truth is that B. F. Skinner
did not offer a personality theory at all.
The essential truth about B. F. Skinner’s research is that
his study of behavior is the antithesis of the psychoanalytic, trait, life span, cognitive and humanistic approaches.
Skinner’s treatment of personality is unusual because he
made no references to internal, subjective accounts for behavior.
Skinner described human beings as
empty organisms.
Skinner argued that psychology is the science of
behavior.
Skinner rejected ____ as a valid personality characteristic.
all of the answers
Skinner believed that physiological processes are
irrelevant for mental activities.
Skinner believed people are subjects who express
overt responses and nothing more.
The research supporting Skinner’s theory was conducted on
rats and pigeons.
Skinner’s research subjects were mainly
animals.
Skinner’s influence on psychology
has wide practical applications.
Skinner’s behavioral approach is
used in schools, correctional institutions, and hospitals.
Skinner’s childhood was characterized by
parental warnings that influenced his adult behavior.
We get a glimpse of Skinner’s later work in his childhood love of
constructing mechanical devices.
Skinner was taught by his parents to
“fear God, the police, and what people think.”
At age 22, Skinner experienced
an identity crisis.
In his early adulthood, Skinner
decided he would study human behavior by the methods of science rather than the methods of fiction.
In Skinner’s fictional community of Walden Two,
life is controlled by positive reinforcement.
Skinner believed that behavior can be controlled by
its consequences.
When a specific stimulus elicits a response, it is called
respondent behavior.
In his famous salivating dog experiment, Ivan Pavlov demonstrated that
reinforcement is necessary for learning.
Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning involves
all of the answers.
To condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, Pavlov
rang the bell shortly before the dog smelled meat powder.
Skinner believed that respondent behavior
does not account for most human behavior.
Skinner’s term for voluntary, explorative behavior is
operant behavior.
According to Skinner, operant behavior
all of the answers.
A rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box is showing ____ behavior.
emitted
According to Skinner, parental disapproval of a child’s behavior will
probably lead to the cessation of that behavior.
Skinner believed that personality is a(n)
pattern or collection of operant behaviors.
In Skinner’s research, food-deprived rats pressed a lever to receive a food pellet. The rat will eventually press the lever
because he will understand that he will be reinforced for his behavior with a food pellet.
The _______ becomes the reinforcer for the rat to receive a reward for his behavior.
food
When Skinner failed to reinforce rats in a Skinner box continuously, the rats
eventually stopped pressing the lever.
In fixed-interval reinforcement,
reinforcement is unrelated to the number of responses.
An employee paid on a weekly basis operates under a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-interval
In a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule, if the interval between reinforcements is shortened the response rate will
increase.
Compared to fixed-interval schedules, fixed-ratio schedules
produce higher response rates.
Slot machines operate on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
variable-ratio
A good example of a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is
casino gambling.
Shaping a behavior that is not likely to occur spontaneously is accomplished by
successive approximation.
The secret to shaping behavior is
reinforcing only successive approximations of the final behavior desired.
The successive approximation method
is also called shaping.
Superstitious behavior is learned quickly when there are
short intervals between reinforcements.
To Skinner, self-control means
control of external variables that determine behavior.
Skinner suggests all of the following techniques of self-control except
physical punishment administered by a friend.
When a token economy was instituted in a psychiatric hospital,
there was a dramatic increase in appropriate patient behaviors.
In a token economy experiment, psychotic patients
became less dependent and more responsible.
Behavior modified in a token economy
usually reverts to its original state when tokens are no longer provided.
In behavior modification therapy, unconscious motivating forces are
ignored.
In behavior modification, Skinner advocated using
only positive reinforcement.
For changing behavior, Skinner believed punishment is
often effective, but has undesirable side effects.
An example of negative reinforcement is
threatening to spank a child unless he cleans up his room.
According to Skinner, negative reinforcement is
less effective than positive reinforcement.
According to Skinner, human behavior is controlled by
reinforcers.
Skinner believed people function
like machines.
Skinner believed people are not responsible for their actions, because
all behavior is determined.
Which one of the following best describes Skinner’s image of human nature?
We are controlled by the environment, but we can control ourselves by changing the environment.
Skinner’s assessment techniques include
laboratory experiments.
The followers of Skinner assess behavior, (not personality) using all of the following techniques except
free association, dream analysis, and projective techniques.
Each of the following is a factor in Skinner’s functional analysis except
the motivation behind the behavior.
Functional analysis
all of these
In the application of Skinner’s behavior modification techniques,
it is necessary to first assess specific behaviors.
Skinner’s methodological approach to the study of behavior is to
observe the subject, have the subject do self-reports, and do physiological measurements.
Skinner’s assessment methods
preferred the intensive study of a single subject at a time.
Skinner believed that valid and replicable results could be obtained without ____________ as long as sufficient data were collected from a single-subject under well-controlled circumstances.
statistical analysis
All of the following are criticisms of Skinner’s system except which?
Operant conditioning cannot change behavior.
Bandura criticizes Skinner for his
study of individual animal subjects rather than on human subjects interacting with one another.
All of the following are ways Albert Bandura differs from Skinner except
learning as a function of reinforcement.
In Albert Bandura’s approach to psychology,
learning can occur without direct reinforcement.
Bandura believes that reinforcement
can occur vicariously and still affect behavior.
Bandura believes that all forms of behavior can be learned
without directly experiencing any reinforcement and by observing the behavior of others.
The observational learning approach
all of these
The fundamental feature of Bandura’s theory is his
idea of learning by observation or example.
Bandura pointed out that operant conditioning is
an inefficient way to learn certain skills.
In modeling, new responses are acquired
before ever performing or displaying them.
Bandura’s famous Bobo doll experiment demonstrated the power of
modeling.
The behavior of children who watched an adult model attack a Bobo doll was
twice as aggressive as the behavior of children in the control group.
According to Bandura, parents of aggressive children are probably
aggressive.
Bandura has found that verbal modeling
works best when interspersed with modeled demonstrations.
Bandura believed that people are more likely to discard their inhibition against aggressive behavior if they see other people doing so. This is called
disinhibition.
_________ can involve what a person looks at or perceives when they observe others.
Modeling
According to studies, the disinhibiting power of modeling is enhanced when the
all of the answers
According to Bandura, deviant people
followed different models that the rest of society considers undesirable.
Hostile and aggressive behaviors, as seen in research, tend to be strongly imitated
especially by children.
In modeling experiments, as the similarity between model and subject decreases, the degree of modeling
decreases.
All of the following characteristics of models are important except
bonds of friendship between model and subject.
A child is more likely to model its behavior after a person
rather than a cartoon character.
Which behaviors are more likely to be imitated?
all of the answers
Which of kind of behavior is most likely to be imitated by children?
aggressive
People who are low in ___________ and ____________ are much more likely to imitate a model’s behavior than are people high in these two areas.
self-confidence/self-esteem
Bandura’s research has shown that observers pay closer attention to modeled behavior that
produces positive or negative consequences rather than neutral outcomes.
Each of the following is a process of observational learning except
extinction processes.
According to Bandura, attentional processes
can be influenced by the model’s attractiveness and confidence.
To retain behavior that has been observed, a person must
encode the model’s behavior and represent it symbolically.
Internal and verbal representational systems
help the observer retain the model’s behavior.
In Bandura’s __________ learning, we form a mental picture of the model’s behavior and use it as a basis for imitation at a future time.
observational
In the production processes, what has been observed and retained is
translated into overt behavior.
Incentive and motivational processes
influence attentional and retention processes as well as performance of the desired behavior.
In modeling and observational learning, reinforcement
is not required for learning to occur.
Bandura sees the self as a
set of cognitive processes and structures.
Bandura says much of our behavior is regulated by
self-reinforcement.
Bandura believes self-reinforcement
is like requiring personal standards of behavior and achievement.
Self-administered reinforcement
all of the answers
Self-reinforcement is
somewhat like the conscience or superego, which Bandura denied.
If you want competent, confident people, find ways to increase their sense of
self-efficacy.
Self-efficacy is determined by
how well we meet our behavioral standards.
Persons high in self-efficacy
believe they deal effectively with life events.
All of the following are sources of information about efficacy except
performance on projective tests.
The most influential source of efficacy judgments is
performance attainment.
Seeing other people fail at some activity
can lower self-efficacy.
All of the following are ways of increasing self-efficacy except
counseling to increase enactive attainment.
All of the following statements about the developmental aspects of modeling are true except which?
Modeling is not important in development until after age two.
By about the age of ____, children have developed sufficient attentional, retention, and production processes to begin imitating behavior some time after the observation rather than immediately.
2.
Self-efficacy in old age
may be lowered because of declining physical abilities and retirement from work.
Bandura’s approach to behavior modification is based on the assumption that
abnormal behavior is learned.
Bandura does not attempt to deal with
modifying or changing learned behaviors.
Bandura applied modeling techniques
to eliminate fears and other intense emotional reactions
A snake phobia can be eliminated by
having subjects observe a live model, then actually handle the snake.
One advantage of modeling as therapy is that it can
be used with groups.
The modeling approach to behavior modification
can improve self-efficacy.
Modeling has been shown to
all of these
Bandura’s work on ______________ has been criticized for exploiting people, manipulating and controlling them against their will.
behavior modification.
Arguing in favor of behavior modification, Bandura says it
actually increases personal freedom.
According to Bandura’s position on free will versus determinism, we are
(along with our environment) reciprocal determinants of each other.
Bandura sees human nature as influenced by
past learning experiences
Triadic reciprocality is the interaction of behavior, environment, and
cognitive factors.
Bandura points out that reinforcement
does not automatically change behavior.
Bandura’s assessment techniques include
self-report inventories and self-ratings.
Bandura’s research
studies large groups of subjects and compares their average performance by statistical analysis.
Research on self-efficacy shows that it is
partly a function of gender and age.
Research suggests that women perceive themselves as high in self-efficacy
when they have traditionally female occupations.
High self-efficacy is associated with
all of the answers
Self-efficacy has been shown to influence
academic performance.
People high in self-efficacy
set higher goals for themselves on the job.
In a study of adults in Germany, those who scored high in personal self-efficacy presented themselves on Facebook as
relaxed, funny and cool in comparison to others that were low in personal self-efficacy.

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