ROBOTS lies somewhere in between. Artificial Intelligence
ROBOTS WILL REDUCE HUMAN EMPLOYMENT
By now, you’ve probably been warned that a robot is coming for your job. But rather than repeating the warning, I’ve decided to throw down a challenge: man against machine.
One side of the story says that machines and AI are ready to take all the jobs. On the other side, there are economists who say that AI revolution or any new technology always create more jobs than they destroy. Well, the real answer lies somewhere in between. Artificial Intelligence will not lead to mass unemployment, but it will shake up the foundation of many companies that rely on outdated technologies, which will result in huge losses and then layoffs. Those companies that will embrace it, will disrupt the industry and speed up the existing trend of computer-related automation which will enable their employees to learn new skills more quickly than in the past.
As I have already mentioned, AI will also create new jobs in the field, now I would like to give you some examples:
1. Self-driving cars may need drivers for emergency rides.
2. More tech developers are needed to create chatbots for every industry.
3. Most of all more AI-trainers are required to train chatbots to act like a human.
Some of you who may not know what a chatbot is, a chatbot is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods.
Okay so coming back to my topic, like websites, all the systems needs to be maintained and constantly updated. No matter how advanced and super-efficient AI may become, some jobs are always done better by humans, including doctors, therapists, hairdressers and personal trainers. An analysis of the British workforce by Deloitte highlighted a profound shift over the past two decades towards “caring” jobs: they found that the number of nursing assistants increased by 909 percent, teaching assistants by 580 percent and care workers by 168 percent.
As the numbers of machines and AI devices increase, so will the need for jobs surrounding them. Robots can’t yet look after themselves?—?they need human intervention at regular intervals to keep them running smoothly. This means there will be a demand for people at every stage of the AI journey. From development and testing, through to support, maintenance, and programming, these devices will not be able to function without constant attention from human beings.
The opportunities of partial automation
A lot of the debate around automation ignores the fact that most of it is partial—that not all of the work is taken over by machines. If a job is completely automated, then jobs will indeed ultimately be eliminated. But if the process is only partial, employment for that job may in fact increase because of the efficiency gains and possible effects on demand. It’s also worth noting that fewer than 5% of jobs in the US could be completely automated using current technology.
David Autor, professor of economics at MIT, adds that the remaining non-automated tasks “tend to become more valuable.” This is because automation is likely to take over mundane or repetitive tasks, leaving professionals more time to do the things that really require their skills. For instance, automation will help mortgage-loan officers spend less time scouring paperwork when processing loan applications and free them up to issue more mortgages. Similarly, in the sphere of health care, if the diagnosis of most conditions can be automated, emergency rooms could combine triage and diagnosis, letting doctors focus on special cases, increasing the number of patients being treated overall.
In the legal sphere, a robot’s ability to sift through large volumes of legal documents using software during the “discovery” phase of a trial was thought to reduce the number of the legal clerks and paralegals who traditionally performed this role. Instead, by reducing the cost of discovery, automation increased demand for it. The number of paralegals has increased since the introduction of discovery software in 1990.
The limits to automation
At the moment, automation does not appear to be infinite. It is constrained by what economists call Polanyi’s paradox. Named after Karl Polanyi, who in 1966 observed “We know more than we can tell,” the paradox refers to the difficulty in automating an activity that we only understand tacitly: Painting a picture, writing a persuasive argument, or dancing are all tasks that even people who are highly proficient in them are not fully able to describe. We cannot program what we cannot understand. True, there is evidence that machine learning capable of “understanding” such tasks tacitly might eliminate this hurdle, but for the time being, professions that require flexibility and creativity are quite resistant to obsolescence.
In the short to medium term, the main effect of automation will not necessarily be eliminating jobs, but redefining them. As the skills and tasks required in the economy change, our response should not be alarmism or protectionism, but a strategic investment in education—which was, incidentally, one of the last policies president Barack Obama pushed for in office.
Now machines might be great at processing complex mathematical problems, organizing spreadsheets, and carrying out thousands of tasks in the blink of an eye. What they aren’t so good at is empathy, forming human connections, reacting quickly in unfamiliar situations.
This is why many high-profile figures, including Facebook boss Mark Zuckerberg, believe the threat from AI has been greatly overestimated. The future looks certain to be dominated by talk about AI and how machines will impact our lives. The workplace is one area where advances in this kind of technology will soon be impossible to ignore?—?but that doesn’t have to be a bad thing.
By anticipating how artificial intelligence will change the nature of employment and how we do business, it’ll be possible to take advantage of this new technological landscape. Instead of living in fear of robots taking our jobs, we’ll be able to create new roles based around AI, and improve the employment prospects of people around the world.