surveillance artificial intelligence effect on privacy.docx

Surveillance Artificial Intelligence:The Effect on PrivacyName: Mohammed Adel Hamid SalahENGL219ID: 20144696Submitted on: 02/08/2018Submitted to: Dr. Mustafa Suliman Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc520891607 h 3Abstract PAGEREF _Toc520891608 h 3Introduction PAGEREF _Toc520891609 h 41. Artificial Intelligence and Surveillance PAGEREF _Toc520891610 h 51.1 Definition of artificial intelligence PAGEREF _Toc520891611 h 51.2 How does AI work? PAGEREF _Toc520891612 h 51.3 History of Surveillance PAGEREF _Toc520891613 h 52. The effect of Surveillance AI on privacy PAGEREF _Toc520891614 h 62.1 Surveillance AI and Advertising PAGEREF _Toc520891615 h 62.2 How Surveillance AI can help police prevent crime PAGEREF _Toc520891616 h 62.2.1 Crime Prevention – Current Applications PAGEREF _Toc520891617 h 72.3 Ethical issues PAGEREF _Toc520891618 h 7Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc520891619 h 8Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc520891620 h 9 AcknowledgementsI would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to my wife for her encouragement which made this study possible. Thank you also for helping me find ideas and suggesting me to do a research about AI and the privacy. when I was searching for an appropriate topic for my dissertation. I am also indebted to Mr. Mustafa Mohammed for his great support.AbstractMost applications of unsupervised artificial intelligence require an enormous amount of data to learn and make intelligent decisions. Artificial Intelligence is becoming one of most important sectors due its potential radically improved services. [paraphrase] In the future we will confront a range of legal and moral dilemmas in the search for a balance between considerable social advances in the name of AI and fundamental privacy rights. This report intends to describe and help us understand how our privacy is affected by the development and application of artificial intelligence. IntroductionWorld has changed, it looks like it did ten years ago but underneath it become very strange indeed. Technology evolved, still evolving and will never stop evolving since there are many great minds in this world who will keep inventing for the sake of humanity, but every coin has two sides. Technology can be used for good purposes but sadly at the same time people misuse it. For example, Artificial Intelligence has become essential part of the technology industry, AI can make machines act, think and react like humans if they had the necessary relevant information. When it comes to surveillance combined with artificial intelligence the outcome is a powerful tool and with such tool existed in our lives, privacy becomes vulnerable. Artificial intelligence is giving surveillance cameras digital brains to match their eyes, letting them analyze live video with no humans necessary. This could be good news for public safety, helping police and first responders more easily spot crimes and accidents and have a range of scientific and industrial applications. But it also raises serious questions about the future of privacy and poses novel risks to social justice [1]. To achieve and use such a tool there must be boundaries. Ethics and government regulations are the key determinant of how surveillance artificial intelligence is being used, without these factors, using this tool will violate our privacy.1. Artificial Intelligence and Surveillance 1.1 Definition of artificial intelligenceAlthough artificial intelligence (AI) does not have a standard definition, it generally refers to “the use of digital technology to create systems that are capable of performing tasks commonly thought to require intelligence [7]. Artificial Intelligence is the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that would require human intelligence. AI as a concept refers to computing hardware being able to essentially think for itself and make decisions based on the data it is being fed. AI systems are often hugely complex and powerful, with the ability to process unfathomable depths of information in an extremely quick time to come to an effective conclusion [6]. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines. It has become an essential part of the technology industry. “The development of AI has made some major advances in recent years and its potential appears to be promising: a better and more efficient public sector, new methods of climate and environmental protection, a safer society, and perhaps even a cure for cancer” [11]. 1.2 Artificial Intelligence typesAI can often cause confusion due to the significant amount of terminology and technical jargon, especially for those without a technical background. Below is a simple explanation of key terms designed to assist the everyday reader understand some of the terminology surrounding AI, and the discussion within this document.1.2.1 Narrow, general and super artificial intelligenceAccording to [9], Narrow type is considered to be the most AI that we experience today, which has been intentionally programmed to be competent in one specific area, It is sometimes also referred to as augmented intelligence to highlight its ability to enhance human intelligence. For example, a computer developed by IBM in the 1980s called Deep Blue can play chess at a level superior to human beings; a feat of huge importance in the timeline of AI development. However, while Deep Blue exhibits an above-human ability in chess, its intelligence ends there. On the other hand, the concept of artificial general intelligence (AGI) according to N. Prasanna [13], AGI ( Artificial General Intelligence) is a term used to describe Real intelligent systems. Real intelligent systems have the ability to think, act and react generally, to take decisions regardless of any previous training, the decision they take are based on what they’ve learnt on their own. It can be really difficult to design such systems as technology of today is somewhat limited, but we can create so called “Partial AGI”. for instance, “bees know how to build beehives, and ants know how to build a nest – both of which are examples of intelligence in a narrow sense. However, this intelligence is specific to a certain domain; bees can’t build a nest and ants cannot build a hive. Humans, on the other hand, have the capacity to be intelligent across a range of areas, and can learn intelligence in new fields through experience and observation “[9].Building upon the idea of AGI, “artificial superintelligence is generally regarded as AI that is both general and exceeds human levels of intelligence” [9]. L. Dormehl [14] has claimed that the term technological singularity defines artificial superintelligence. According to him, “singularity is a hypothesis predicted on the creation of artificial superintelligence. a superintelligence would own abilities greater than our own. This would trigger a kind of tipping point in which enormous changes take place in human society.1.3 How AI works?1.3.1 2. The effect of Surveillance AI on privacy 2.1 Surveillance AI and AdvertisingThey say, “if you’re not paying for it, then you’re the product”. It has been clear, companies became greedier, they would rather sell your information and your privacy to generate revenue. “Facebook, Google, and Alibaba are prime examples of how data monopolies can generate data on its users to target and personalize advertisements” [7]. According to Denton and Pauwels [7] Recently, Facebook has been under scrutiny for its connection to Cambridge Analytica, which markets itself as “providing consumer research, targeted advertising and other data-related services to both political and corporate clients.” This sort of accurate, targeted advertising is a potentially valuable state propaganda tool; even though companies benignly use it to sell you their wares. Toubiana, Narayanan, Boneh, Nissenbaum and Barocas [12] claimed that each time the user visit a web page an AI extracts keywords and URL into a list, this list of keywords is then used to retrieve interest categories related to the page content. Once the list of categories related to a page is established, the list is stored via the Firefox tagging system. Therefore, when a user re-visits a page, interest categories are directly retrieved from the Firefox Tag database. 2.2 How Surveillance AI can help police prevent crimeBased on a study in the US, Violent crimes increased nationally in 2016 by 4.1 percent and homicides rose by 8.6 percent, one year after violence increased by 3.9 percent and homicides jumped by 10.8 percent. A total of 17,250 people was murdered in 2016, the F.B.I. said [4], To decrese the percentage of crime rates, companies and cities all over world are experimenting with using artificial intelligence to reduce and prevent crime, and to more quickly respond to crimes in progress. The ideas behind many of these projects is that crimes are relatively predictable [5]. According to John Quain [10] It’s already common for law enforcement in cities like London and New York to employ facial recognitionand license plate matching as part of their video camera surveillance. But Cortica’s AI promises to take it much further by looking for “behavioral anomalies” that signal someone is about to commit a violent crime.2.2.1 Crime Prevention – Current Applications2.2.1.1 Gunfire Detection – ShotSpotterAccording to ShotSpotter, only about 20 percent of gunfire events are called in to 911 by individuals, and even when people do report the event they often can only provide vague or potentially inaccurate information. They claim their system can alert authorities in effectively real time with information about the type of gunfire and a location that can be as accurate as 10 feet. Multiple sensors pick up the sound of a gunshot and their machine learning algorithm triangulates where the shot happened by comparing data such as when each sensor heard the sound, the noise level, and how they should have echoed of building [5].2.2.1.2 Predicting Future Crime Spots – PredpolIn the US, PredPol aims to reduce “victimization and keep communities safe,” providing law enforcement agencies with customized crime predictions software that analyzes crime type, location, and date/time. To achieve this goal, predictive policing software like PredPol will have to overcome its reliance on historical data and invest in more real-time data collection and analysis [7].” Their algorithm is based around the observation that certain crime types tend to cluster in time and space. By using historical data and observing where recent crimes took place they claim they can predict where future crimes will likely happen” [5]. PredPol claims that they can predict when and where new crimes are most likely to occur by analyzing existing data on past crimes. Currently their system is being in several American cities including Los Angeles, which was an early adopter [5].2.3 Ethical issuesAccording to Article19 [8] AI-powered surveillance presents one such serious repercussion. The pervasive and invisible nature of AI systems, coupled with their ability to identify and track behavior, can have a significant chilling effect on the freedom of expression. This can take place through self-censorship, altered behavior in public spaces and private communications alike. [Paraphrase]. “The rise of techniques such as video surveillance, facial recognition, behavior analysis etc., by public authorities and private companies hinder freedom of expression and also infringe the very essence of the right to privacy” [8]. Article19 [8] has claimed that [paraphrase] AI systems can be used to make or inform decisions about people or their environments, potentially based on profiling. An environment that knows your preferences and adapts itself according to presumed interests raises important issues around privacy, autonomy and the ethics of such adaptations. Personalization, not only of information but also of our perception of the world, will become increasingly important as we move towards connected spaces like smart cities or augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR). “The increased use of AI may require the status quo of privacy protection to be revisited, however it does not mean privacy will cease to exist or become irrelevant” [9]. One important factor of information privacy is that it provides an important framework for making ethical choices about how we use new technologies. Considering the ethics of technology and solving the privacy challenges will be essential to the long-term success of AI. A balance between technological innovation and privacy considerations will promote the development of socially responsible AI that can assist in the creation of public value in the long term.Conclusion Bibliography 1.  J. Vincent. (2018, Jan). “ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IS GOING TO SUPERCHARGE SURVEILLANCE.” [On-line] Available: https://www.theverge.com/2018/1/23/16907238/artificial-intelligence-surveillance-cameras-security [Jul. 18, 2018]. 2. http://mediasmarts.ca/privacy/internet-surveillance-privacy3. D. Gershgorn. (2017, Aug). “The age of AI surveillance is here.” [On-line] Available: https://qz.com/1060606/the-age-of-ai-surveillance-is-here/ [Jul. 22, 2018].4. T. Williams. (2017, Sept). “Violent Crime in U.S. Rises for Second Consecutive Year.” [On-line] Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/25/us/violent-crime-murder-chicago-increase-.html [Jul. 22, 2018].5. D. Faggella. (2018, Jul). “AI for Crime Prevention and Detection – 5 Current Applications.” [On-line] Available: https://www.techemergence.com/ai-crime-prevention-5-current-applications/ [Jul. 22, 2018].6. M. Moore. (2018, Jul). “What is AI? Everything you need to know.” [On-line] Available: https://www.techradar.com/news/what-is-ai-everything-you-need-to-know [Jul. 24, 2018].7. S.W. Denton, E. Pauwels “There’s Nowhere to Hide”. Artificial Intelligence and Privacy in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, PP.3-?? . Mar.20188. Article19. (2018, Apr). “Privacy and Freedom of Expression In the Age of Artificial Intelligence” [On-line]. PP. 10-21. Available: www.privacyinternational.org/report/1752/privacy-and-freedom-expression-age-artificial-intelligence [Jul. 31 ,2018].9. Office of the Victorian Information Commissioner. (2018, June). “Artificial intelligence and privacy” [On-line]. PP. 1-15. Available: www.cpdp.vic.gov.au/images/content/pdf/privacy_papers/20180530%20AI%20Issues%20Paper%20V1.0.pdf [Jul. 31 ,2018].10. J.R. Quain. (2018, Apr). “Crime-predicting A.I. isn’t science fiction. It’s about to roll out in India” [On-line] Available: www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/could-ai-based-surveillance-predict-crime-before-it-happens/ [Jul. 31, 2018].11. The Norwegian Data Protection Authority (2018, Jan). “Artificial intelligence and privacy ” [On-line] Available: www.datatilsynet.no/globalassets/global/english/ai-and-privacy.pdf [Jul. 31, 2018].12. V. Toubiana, A. Narayanan, D. Boneh, H. Nissenbaum, S. Barocas (2010, Mar). “Adnostic: Privacy Preserving Targeted Advertising” [On-line] Available: www.papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2567076 [Jul. 31, 2018].13. N. Prasanna (2018, Feb). “What is Artificial General Intelligence?” [On-line] Available: www.towardsdatascience.com/what-is-artificial-general-intelligence-5b395e63f88b [Jul. 31, 2018].14. L. Dormehl (2017, Apr). “A beginner’s guide to A.I. superintelligence and ‘the singularity’” [On-line] Available: www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/what-is-the-singularity-ai/ [Jul. 31, 2018].https://www.roboticsbusinessreview.com/ai/3-basic-ai-concepts-explain-artificial-intelligence/

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