The Emerging Threat of Avian Influenza

The Emerging Danger of Avian Influenza Composition Sample


Avian influenza is a growing concern for globe. It is considered the potential pandemic as the particular world can see within bird flu outbreak around the world. The recent virus is really a strain of influenza type A H5N1, a deadly form of infection from bird to human, in addition to human-to-human transmission started within 2003 in Asia, which is becoming now a new challenge for health treatment systems around the planet. Pandemics have been taking place throughout the centuries. Typically the last three such pandemics have taken devote 1918, 1957 and 1968, which killed about 40 mil, 2 million and just one million people respectively. In comparison to 1918, the 1957 and 1968 pandemics weren’t as deadly as 1918, even though they murdered one million to 4 million people mostly older, but the real cost of human life continues to be taken by 1918 autorevolezza. The 1957 H2N2 disease was your product of gene re-assortment; a hybrid computer virus that may be transmitted from person to person, it killed about 70 thousand folks in US alone.

The 1918 fatal pandemic was the most severe pandemic to hit the world, killing about 40 million people worldwide which includes seven hundred thousand people in US. It attacked individuals between 15 to be able to 34 years of era with a mortality price of 2. 5 percent in US. Due to the rapid spread regarding the virus, the regular age in US in the time decreased by simply 10 years. In a new recent study by ALL OF US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides mentioned that the cause for 1918 virus becoming so deadly was that the particular virus could replicate by itself even in the disette of proteolytic cleavage, which usually are normally found in lungs. It means of which 1918 virus could grow in any cell type plus replicate itself easily no matter human host or surroundings.

The Present Crisis

Since 2003, a highly pathogenic bird virus (influenza AH5N1) provides broken out in birds (poultry) and is sweeping in Asia and Europe as well. However, the virus is usually moving beyond birds and the recent evidence has shown that the H5N1 strain will be a highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) which offers become an animal native to the island in Southeast Asia. The consistent breaking of the particular disease has been proved disastrous for the affected countries resulting in the loss of life of 140 million parrots worth US$10 billion. Also though HPAI is regarded an animal disease, but that has also infected about 120 human which makes it a serious issue for the world community. It is usually believed the spread of Influenza among human may lead the world to a greater catastrophe, as there is absolutely no immunity against virus.

Even though, this is believed that right now there is no need associated with fear from the wide-spread epidemic due to low risk associated with the existing virus compared to 1918 and 195, however right now there is possibility that H5N1 strain can adapt it self through mutation in addition to become transmissible to human- to- human contact, which often can ultimately create the global pandemic same as 1918 Spanish influenza. There is usually a real possibility of propagate of this deadly computer virus due to the fast communication in a globalized globe. The changes in human and animal population can also help in growing the reach of virus to greater geographical places. The optimist may consider that perhaps it will be possible to predict the outbreak of another outbreak, but the reality is there is no vaccine available against the computer virus that puts human populace at a greater chance than ever.

One recent example of such scenario was SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003, which within five months infected regarding 8000 people, out of which about 10 per cent passed away. The disease spread from crowded markets of China (Guangdong Province) from animal to human being. After the virus emerged within rural China, it quickly spread to five nations around the world within 24 hours in addition to spread to 30 nations in the next couple of months. The SARS experience is actually a lesson to health representatives around the world. Actually though the death rate associated with SARS had been low, yet the propagate of disease created uncertainness blowing apart the economies and tourism industries in the affected region; specifically Asia Pacific where losses reached US$ 40 billion, while also slowing down typically the airline industry by forty five percent. The reason for dread is the power of H5N1 avian computer virus has the ability to replicate itself efficiently in human cells, which makes human- to- human transmitting easy. Any outbreak associated with such pandemic is real for the reason that H5N1 does not have any vaccine to be able to combat with, even although several anti-viral drugs are resistant to the virus, such as amantadine but presently there is no complete sweet. Like 1918 virus, the particular H5N1 virus is associated with unusually high loss of life rate of 50 % when compared with 2. 5 percent death rate of 1918 virus.

The economic price of the virus outbreaks in Asia offers been limited, but typically the death of 140 mil birds cost is well worth US$10 billion. More than economic costs, human charges are ir-recoverable, which increase dying and sickness among the list of human being population all over typically the world. It is estimated that Spanish influenza inside 1918 killed about two. 5 percent of planet population (1. 8 billion at that time); this proportion would mean about 150 million deaths within today’s world. A serious pandemic can also produce risk for a global economic system. It will also increase risk aversion of which may give rise to surge in demand with regard to liquidity, particularly for cash and low risk assets. This flight in capital may dwindle the asset price and widen the credit score spread for corporate in addition to emerging markets causing interruption in commodities prices. Nevertheless the most direct influence of such outbreak could increase illness and mortality rate affecting labour force around the world. Additional long lasting costs will end up being increased like cost regarding preventing and treating the diseases bringing a cost on saving and investment decision in many nations, that may slow down the economic activities and increase joblessness.

According to WHO estimate, the outbreak deaths can reach among 2 to 7 million, which have been calculated on 1968 model. Whilst other estimates consider the death rate much a lot more higher almost much like 1918 scenario. Whatever will be the case, the threat is real and serious with no a single can truly estimate the human cost and its impact despite the best guess. The pandemic threat needs important response to protect populations through being infected that provide pressure at local health care system to end up being ready for any unexpected emergency.

Public wellness preparedness Plan for the pandemic occasion

The Manager and Health officials have to work out there the following plan in the event of pandemic threat;

1: Ensuring that nearby health system is well prepared with WHO check list for the pandemic.

2: Ensuring that will the authorities and duties are clearly identified regarding command and control regarding health systems in the particular pandemic scenario.

3: Identifying priorities plus response strategies for general public and private health treatment systems for every single stage, including human and material source management.

four: Creation of case finding, treatment, management procedures in addition to infection control strategies.

5: Estimating medicinal and other material requires and arrangement.

6: Increasing awareness amongst workers and public.

7: Regular workout of contingency plans.


WHO” global autorit? preparedness plan. ” WHO Global Autorevolezza Programme 2006.

Xian Wedd, Sheriff Mosad,. “ Avian influenza: An emerging outbreak threat. ” CLEVELAND CLINIC JOURNAL REGARDING MEDICINE VOLUME Dec 2005:


Oster, Micheal. “ Preparing for Subsequent Pandemic. ” July 2006. 19 Apr. 2006 <>.

“ What’ s Happening Today. ” 19 Apr. 06 <>.

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