There are many methods to measure happiness globally including Gross National Happiness

There are many methods to measure happiness globally including Gross National Happiness (GNH), first mentioned in the constitution of Bhutan in 2008 (The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan 2017). Gross National Happiness has gathered some popularity as an indicator of unified happiness in any individual nation (Layard, R., 2006) and in 2012 the United Kingdom started measuring national wellbeing following on from Bhutan’s lead. (Measuring National Well-being: Life in the UK, 2012). Furthermore, the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network publish the World Happiness Report which recognises which countries have the highest degrees of happiness. The data is collected and edited before being released annually and was first published in 2012. In 2017 the world happiness report highlighted the importance of social foundations and affirm that not only is happiness personal it is also socially oriented. Currently Norway is the happiest country in the world and the report outlines good governance, income, health and freedom as many of the main factors. Australia is ranked ninth in the world (World Happiness Report 2017). Likewise, there have been several measures developed to benchmark happiness in individuals also, for example, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) which was designed by Sonja Lyubomirsky and Heidi Lepper in 1999. The subjective happiness scale allows the subject to assess their happiness using their own benchmarks and decide their own happiness or unhappiness (Lyubomirsky, S. ; Lepper, H. 1999). Likewise, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) developed by David Watson, Lee Clark and Auke Tellegen in 1988 is a short questionnaire concentrating on the relation between positive and negative effects on personality traits (Watson, D., Clark, L., ; Tellegen, A. 1988). In addition, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) was designed to measure satisfaction with people’s lives in totality. The scale does not evaluate satisfaction with individual areas like health or finances for example, but allows the person to consolidate these areas in whichever way they decide and takes a few minutes to complete. (Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, Randy J., & Griffin, S. 1985). In 2002 Michael Argyle and Peter Hills designed the Oxford Happiness questionnaire aimed at assisting a person seeking happiness and life satisfaction.

The notion of happiness is the foundation of the theory of positive psychology (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006). Compton (2005) reasons for a people to obtain greater fulfilment in life, there is a need to better understand and assist people to develop the necessary qualities by concentrating on the positive as opposed to focusing on the negative.

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