Title: “with a Point of Departure from the Managerial Economics Theory (Ies) of Your Choice Describe How Managerial Economics Is Applicable in Your Work Place of Your Choice.” Essay Example

Title: “with a place of Departure from typically the Managerial Economics Theory (Ies) which you have chosen Describe How Managerial Economics Is Applicable in Your Work Place which you have chosen. ” Essay

MZUMBE COLLEGE (CHUO KIKUU MZUMBE) DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS INSTITUTION STUDENT NAME: KARUGABA RUGAIMUKAMU REGISTRATION NUMBER: 1375/T. 2009 COURSE: MSC. MARKETING ADMINISTRATION SUBJECT: MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS PROGRAM LECTURER: DR. PROSPER NGOWI TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT SUBJECT: “WITH A POINT OF DEPARTURE FROM THE BUREAUCRATIC ECONOMICS THEORY (IES) ASSOCIATED WITH YOUR CHOICE DESCRIBE EXACTLY HOW MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS IS RELEVANT IN YOUR WORK PLACE REGARDING YOUR CHOICE. ” CASE STUDY: ZAIN TANZANIA TABLE REGARDING CONTENTS Table of contents………………………………………………………………. i List of Abbreviations……………………………………………………………ii one Introduction………………………………………………………………… 1. 1Economic Theories Explanation……………………………………. 1. 2Theories to be Discussed…………………………………………… a couple of. 0Zain Tanzania History and Background……………………………………. 2 . not 1Zain Marketplace Share and the Position of Telecommunication Sector…… second . 2Zain Organization Structure………………………………………….. second . 3Zain Products and Services…………………………………………… 3. 0Challenging Managerial Choice Areas in Zain Tanzania-Real Cases……… 3. 1Choice regarding Product……………………………………………………… 3. 2 Identifying the price tag on a Product…………………………………… three or more. Range of Technology…………………………………………………. 3. some The way to promote Sales………………………………………………… a few. 5 How to Handle Inventory…………………………………………… 3. 6 Choice of Business and Nature of Product……………………………. 4. zero Impact of the Choices in the Short Work and Long Run…………………….. some. 1 Impact of Item Choice……………………………………………… 4. 2 Effect on Price Setting………………………………………………… 4. 3 Impact on picking out Technology…………………………………… 4. 4 Influence on Decisions Made to Promote Sales…………………………… 4. 5 Influence from the Management of Inventory……………………………… 4. Impact Associated together with the Choice of Company and Nature of Product….. 5. 0 Conclusion and Recommendations……………………………………………….. Appendix i: Representation of Application of Economics to Managerial Decision Making….. Appendix ii: Zain Tanzania Organization Structure Chart………………………………… Appendix iii: Telecommunication Operators, Tone of voice Subscription and Teledensity……….. Appendix iv: Subscriber Shares and Trend of Voice Operator Subscriptions……………….. References……………………………………………………………………………………… LIST REGARDING ABBREVIATIONS: BDCs: Business Development Coordinators

CAD: Corporate Affairs Director CAMERA: Corporate Affairs Manager CAOs: Corporate Affairs Officers CCD: Customer Care Director CCMs: Customer Care Managers CCO: Chief Commercial Office CCRs: Customer Care Representatives CCSs: Customer Care Supervisors DM: Director of promoting EDGE: Enhanced Information rates for Global Evolution FD: Finance Director FDI: Foreign Direct Investment FMs: Finance Managers FOs: Financing Officers GPRS: General Packet Radio Service GSM: Groupe Special Mobile’ (Global Method for Mobile Communications) HRD: Hr manager} Director

HRMs & AMs: Human Resources Managers and Administration Supervisors HROs & AOs: Recruiting Officers and Administration Representatives M-Banking: Mobile Banking MD: Managing Director MDC: Minutes Distribution Centre MMS: Media Message MMSs: Marketing Managers-Segments MOs: Marketing Officers MRDC: Mini Regional Distribution Centre PCs: Project Coordinators PMs: Project Managers R & D: Research and Development SD: Sales Director TEXT MESSAGE: Short Message Service TCRA: Tanzania Communication Regulatory Specialist TMs: Territory Mangers TTCL: Tanzania Telecommunication Company Partial

Zap: Zain Pesa 1 ) 0 LAUNCH Before embarking to this paper it is smart to show how different economics gurus have defined Bureaucratic Economics. Webster (2003) identifies Managerial Economics as the application of economic theories and quantitative methods (Mathematics in addition to Statistics) to the managerial decision making process. Relating to Dwivedi ( 2008), “Managerial economics can be broadly defined as typically the study of economic hypotheses, logic and tools regarding economic analysis that are really used in the process business selection making.

Economical analysis and techniques of economic analysis are applied to analyze business issues, evaluate business options in addition to opportunities with a view to arriving at an correct business decision. ” In my view I notice all the definitions to deal within the common concept regarding directing the goal of Managerial Economics at making optimal company decisions using economics theories and statistical logics. Just about all managers therefore have to make use of Managerial economics theories for the success of these enterprises. 1. 1 ECONOMIC THEORIES EXPLAINATION:

Generally, economic theories are worried with how society answers the simple economic questions of exactly what goods and services should be produced, and within what amounts, how these gods and services need to be produced (i. at the., the choice of appropriate production technology), and with regard to whom these goods and services need to be produced. Over the particular past 20 years, Tanzania has been transformed from your on the inside planned/command economy into a marketplace oriented system through effective implementation of trade liberalization measures.

The Government has taken planned procedure for encourage private sector led growth through recovery of market forces in addition to less interference in industrial activities. These measures which include privatization of state owned or operated companies, reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers in addition to fiscal/monetary reforms have opened doors for expansion associated with private sector operations inside all spheres of business triggering Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). Hence, Zain Tanzania (an FDI operation) as with the case of just about all profit-maximizing firms produce only the goods and providers her customers demand. Exactly why?

Webster (2003) warns that profit optimization implies cost minimization inside competitive markets since companies that do not combine successful inputs in the most efficient (least costly) way possibly will quickly be driven out of company. 1. 2 THEORIES TO BE ABLE TO BE DISCUSSED With regards to this specific discussion the following microeconomic theories (as laid lower by Dwivedi (2008)) should be used to explain exactly how problems faced by administrators inside the work places specifically Zain Tanzaniare treated with: •Theory of Demand. This answers questions like: How do consumers determine whether or not to be able to buy a commodity?

How do these people decide on the quantity of a commodity to be purchased? When carry out they stop consuming the commodity? How do typically the consumers behave when the price of the product, their income and preferences and fashions change? From what level of demand, does changing price turn out to be inconsequential in terms associated with total revenue? The information of demand theory can, consequently, be helpful in building the choice of commodities, finding the particular optimum level of production in addition to in determining the price tag on the particular product. •Theory of Production. Production theory explains partnership between inputs and output.

It furthermore explains under what conditions cost increase or decrease; how total output behaves when units of 1 factor (input) are increased keeping other factors continuous. How can output end up being maximized from a provided quantity of resources; and how can the ideal size be determined? Production theory, thus, helps found in determining the size of the total output and the quantity of capital and labor to be employed, given the objective of the firm. •Pricing Theory. This explains how price is determined under different kinds of market conditions.

It could be helpful in identifying the price policy of the firm. •Profit Research and Profit Management. Income making is considered the most common aim of all business undertakings. This is not always since organizations operate below the environment of dangers and uncertainties. Profit theory guides firms in typically the measurements and management regarding profit, in making allowances for the risk high quality, in calculating the genuine return on capital in addition to pure profit and likewise for future profit planning. •Theory of Capital in addition to Investment Decision. Capital is usually the foundation of company.

Its successful allocation and management will be one of the most crucial tasks of the administrators along with a determinant of the particular success degree of the firm. The major issues associated to capital are: range of investment project, assessing the efficiency of capital and a lot efficient allocation of funds. Knowledge of capital theory can contribute a good deal in investment-decision making, choice of projects, sustaining the capital, capital budgeting etc . 2. 0 ZAIN TANZANIA HISTORY AND BACKDROP: Zain Tanzania (then Celtel Tanzania) was launched in Oct 2001 and it is part associated with Zain Group.

Celtel Tanzania a Multinational Enterprise as Foreign Immediate Investment came into presence in the country as a result of partial privatization associated with Tanzania Telecommunication Company Restricted (TTCL). Zain Group contains 22 countries’ operations; five in the Middle East and 17 in Africa. These are: Burkina Faso, Chad, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Arab saudi, Macizo Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait and Lebanon. The government of Tanzania features 40% ownership shares inside Zain Tanzania.

Zain Tanzania is the particular most innovative mobile phone operator and has launched many “firsts” in the telecommunication sector in Tanzania. Above all, Zain Tanzania is usually the Cellular operator with the widest network like compared to other operators: Vodacom, Tigo, Zantel, Sasatel, TTCL Mobile, and BOL. Zain Tanzania has their executive headquarter in Zain House at Kijitonyama, A. H. Mwinyi road, Dar es salaam. In August 1, 2008 Zain party rebranded its Africa procedures from “ Celtel ” to “ Zain “ in line with the objectives of operating under one brand in almost all the 22 countries.

Zain Mission, Eyesight and Values: •Mission “To cement Zain as the leading global mobile user that provides professional, planet -class mobile and data services to all. our consumers, wherever they are, worldwide. And Zain aims to be able to achieve this by exceeding its customers’ expectations, satisfying its employees, and offering returns beyond reasonable anticipations for its shareholders”. •Vision “Zain will become a new global wireless operator by 2011 through a 3 x 3 x a few profitable expansion”.

It is through this particular ambitious Vision of progressive growth that moved Zain from a single operator within Kuwait at the beginning of 2003 to a new company with a commercial presence in 22 nations by March 2009. The 3 x 3 times 3 is the method that will make Zain a global player in three stages regional, global and global, with each stage completed in 3 years, with an aim regarding reaching a customer base of a hundred and fifty million. Basically, with this plan, Zain should achieve in nine years just what other companies have taken more than 27 years to achieve. Values “At Zain we become one international family, building on typically the outstanding progress we have made over the past 5 years, and adopting primary values that remain regular in spite of the different national civilizations and identities that we share. These Values are: Radiance, Heart and Belonging. Radiance is all about leading the way with imagination and vision, bringing joy, color, and richness to the business environment. Heart represents living our lives along with courage and resolve, interesting our spirit and touching emotions.

Owed means just what it says … being area of the fellowship and community spirit that knows no territorial boundaries”. two. 1 ZAIN MARKET SHARE AND THE STATUS ASSOCIATED WITH TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR. Out associated with approximately 40 million folks in Tanzania, a teledensity (penetration) of 36% because of June 2009 offers been reached and also this is seen as possessing prospects within the telecoms sector. According to Tanzania Communication Regulatory Specialist (TCRA) prior to 2005 the teledensity was under 10%. Research shows Tanzania’s telecom sector grew by something like 20. 1 per cent in the year of 2007, and 19. per penny in 2006 obviously due to the continual FDI conducive surroundings created by TCRA guidelines on telecom sector liberalization. Zain is ranking minute having a market share of 30% while Vodacom is usually still leading the market along with more subscriptions (40%). See appendix iv. 2. 2 ZAIN ORGANISATION STRUCTURE: Zain Tanzania operation is a multinational subsidiary of Zain Group. Zain Tanzania is usually under Zain East Africa Region comprising of Tanzania, Kenya, Ugandand Madagascar. Zain Tanzania is following a 3-level managerial level style getting the Directors, Supervisors and the Departmental Functional Members.

Nevertheless, the top managerial levels members are the on taking part in making corporate methods that describes Zain Tanzania’s overall direction in conditions of its general perspective growth and the management of its various businesses and product lines. The organization structure is created in a chart on appendix ii. 2. a few ZAIN PRODUCTS & SRVICES: Conforming on its Quest, Vision and Values, Zain has come with numerous products and service to fit its customers in Tanzania. The products and providers are in six classes as mentioned below: i. Personal Plans •Prepaid •Postpaid •Jirushe Tariff International Tariff •Broadband Tariff ii. Business Plans •Postpaid Plan •Xcelerator per minute •Xcelerator per following •Prices •Know your Costs iii. Phone services provider •SMS text message messages •Voice Mail •Roaming •Missed Call Alert •Call Waiting •International Dialing •Fax •Internet Access •One Community •Me2U •One Office •Choose a Phone •Black Super berry •Phone Care •Driving Protection •Sim Card Registration iv. Zap v. Extra Service •Zain Portal •SMS Information Services •Compatibility Chart •MMS •Zain Rewardz •My Vibes vi. 24-hour Customer Care Middle 3. 0 CHALLENGING MANAGERIAL DECISION AREAS IN ZAIN TANZANIA-REAL CASES: 3. OPTION OF A PRODUCT Zain Tanzania believes that clients have the right not simply to extensive coverage and quality services but additionally to be able to affordable tariffs. This concept can make the company to take place with assorted products for occasion one among them appearing PAMOJA 10 which permits the Zain subscribers to make voice calls in order to 10 selected favorite amounts with a call rate associated with 1/sec. Pamoja 10 is usually a direct response in order to Zain customers request plus will conveniently enable individuals to make more calls regarding less. Since Zain will be devoted to live to her promise of making a wonderful world to her customers.

Hence right here we see that the economic question of just what product and services to get produced being answered. A lot more acquisition of subscribers was obtained and retention rate accelerated as an effect of Pamoja 10 launch. This situation conforms to be able to the demand theory. Next an extensive research carried out by Zain in Tanzania, it was revealed of which banking services and having to pay methods of various solutions is absolutely very undesirable thus in February this year Zain Tanzania launched its brand new M-Banking services Zap for which one, 400 customers were authorized only in 10 days and nights period.

Zap allows Zain customers to be able to use their mobile phones as mobile wallet. Providers payments via Zap contain: LUKU power purchase, DAWASCO water bill payment, mobile banking using NMB plus Postal bank. 3. 2DETERMINING THE COST OF A PRODUCT. Based to Kottler and Keller, (2009) firms move across a new six-step procedure in environment the price and these include: selecting the pricing objective, determining demand, estimating costs, analyzing competitors’ costs, prices, and offers, picking a pricing method plus selecting the final prices.

Currently the mobile communication industry found in Tanzania is of oligopoly nature and it is facing value wars among its participants i. e., Zain, Tigo, Vodand Zantel. Value wars involve a condition of intense competitive rivalry accompanied by multi-lateral group of price reduction. Tigo having its pricing objective being your survival is always a prices leader in lowering data plans. Zain Tanzania pursues a new product-quality leadership pricing objective. As an example, in December 2008 TIGO officially launched their Longa 3 tariff for their cellular subscribers in order to a reduced rate of 1 sh. er second being a 65% contract price slash, for 24 hours throughout the country. Any time Tigo launched EXTREME far sooner had it done thus Zain and Voda adopted by announcing their JIRUSHE and CHIZIKA respectively. Tigo EXTREME could enable an acquisition of an affordable quantity of subs to tremble the giants Zain in addition to Vodacom. 3. 3CHOICE REGARDING TECHNOLOGY Cateora, Graham in addition to Salwan, (2008) explain exactly how demand is affected by simply technology in the global business-to-business markets by pinpointing that, “ Not only is technology the important thing to economic growth, however for numerous products it is likewise the competitive edge on today’s global markets.

The ability in order to develop the latest technology and to benefit through its application is the critical factor in typically the international competitive of supervisors,, countries and companies. Your competitors to meet this worldwide demand will be rigid; the companies with all the aggressive edge will be individuals whose products are scientifically advanced, in the highest high quality, and accompanied by worldclass service. Zain Tanzania a MNE is very enthusiastic on availing the brand new technologies.

This was the first mobile operator to introduce the particular first GPRS/EDGE Service found in Tanzania in September 2006 that enables data cable connections significantly faster than call up and traditional GSM. Since technology is an important plus expensive factor input typically the concept of production principle was much adhered to be able to. 3. 4HOW TO ADVERTISE SALES Despite the income maximization objective Zain Tanzanialso has an amount of other objectives including maximization of sales revenue. Thus the company will its best effort in promoting sales.

Major decisions to update sales were done inside May 2008 around the sizing of the sales pressure the location where the number of regional sales representatives was doubled. Concurrently, an one, 000-man employed sales team was created state. Again, the theory regarding production was seriously checked since this includes work since the factor input. three or more. 5HOW TO MANAGE SUPPLY Learning to manage supply efficiently and correctly will certainly allow a company to stock a sufficient amount of product to fulfill customer needs. Not enough inventory causes delays in addition to is bad for company.

Excessive stock costs money. It will be crucial to handle inventory thus that profit are maximized and costs are minimized. When Zain (then Celtel) commenced business in Tanzania in November 2001 only four shops were set up; one in each zone that is, in Dar es salaam, Arusha, Iringa, and Mwanza which symbolized the respective zones of Coastal, North, South plus Lake. In 2005 the particular company decided to relocate typically the Iringa shop to Mbeyafter learning that Iringa was not a representative potential strategically point for the The southern area of zone regions.

However, the Iringa go shopping was not closed entirely but was given to be able to a third party to perform. As the number regarding subscribers grew a number of shops have considering that been opened including Unguja, Dodoma, Mororogro, and Mtwara. 3. 6CHOICE OF BUSINESS AND NATURE OF ITEM In optimizing cost, many companies are coming up with a good idea of outsourcing any time it comes to the particular choice of business and nature of product. According to Wheelen and Hunger, (2008) outsourcing is purchasing from someone else the product or service that will had been previously offered internally.

Freelancing is becoming an progressively important part of Strategic decision making and an important method to increase efficiency and frequently quality. Zain has lately (November 2009) decided in order to outsource its network operations to Nokia Siemens. The particular objective being delivery of improved quality of services and enhanced coverage regarding Zain. Many decisions associated with such nature had recently been done by Zain within the past for instance the outsourcing of submission tasks to National Retailers, Min Distribution Centre (MDC), and Min Regional Submission Centers (MRDC). 4. IMPACT OF THE DECISIONS INSIDE THE SHORT RUN IN ADDITION TO LONG HAUL In my level of view I see that all managerial choices have impacts whether good or negative and can take place in either growing process or perhaps long run or both. Companies decision making activities are done under the problems of risks and questions arising because of various forces: political-legal, social- cultural, cost-effective, technological at the same time industrial causes for example: the shoppers, lenders, suppliers, communities, special attention groups, employees/labor unions, shareholders, competitors, trade associations and so forth..

Further just about all the decisions are produced based on selecting the greatest out of available alternatives with the aim of maximizing benefits from your given scarce assets. Understand the impact of decisions made in the course of daily operations in Zain Tanzania; let’s revisit the areas associated with managerial decisions as mentioned above: 4. 1IMPACT ABOUT PRODUCT CHOICE On launching Pamoja10 Zain Tanzania could attract a number of new acquisitions and therefore increased its subscriber base but the product over time killed the existing Zain product of Pay cell phone service i.., an open public call service. Product cannibalization. Likewise, when Zain released Jirushe, an item which allows customers to make call for the whole day for only T. Shs. 1, 500 the impact was at a short run sensed. A number of the corporate clients (companies customers with contractual billing systems/post paid) began asking for to be deactivated and go back back for the traditional prepaid plan in order that they could appreciate Jirushe tariff. 4. 2IMPACT ON PRICE SETTING Thanks to the tense competitors that Zain Tanzania is facing especially on typically the ngoing price wars in the industry Zain is usually becoming more of reactive than being proactive. Lowering prices with cost staying a similar; means cutting earnings. This really is logically done through mathematical expression that complete profit equals total revenue minus total cost. Profit = Total Revenue : Total Cost Profit sama dengan PQ – C exactly where P= Price, Q = Quantity of customer and C= Cost Scenario 1: When P is lowered although Q and C leftover the same, Profit will end up being less Scenario 2: Whenever P is lowered plus Q is raised together with C remaining the exact same, Profit will be higher.

Hence, the lowering of price makes rational sense if in support of if it is concomitantly with rising in client number and where flexibility of demand is applicable. In this case profit maximization theory will get appreciated. 4. 3IMPACT ABOUT THE CHOICE OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION Certainly Zain Tanzania is the leader in technology here in Tanzania in the Telecommunication Industry inter alia. Along with the introduction of Zap, One Network, 3G. Through the theory of production, Technology, T as an input variable is make the Money, K category because technology remains constant during time.

The merchandise performance Qarpu = f (K, L) Where: Qarpu sama dengan Quantity measured in average revenue per user Nited kingdom = Capital as Technologies L = Labor Typically the production function above means that the quantity of common revenue per user depends on the quantity of Technology/Capital input (K) in addition to Labor (L) employed to promote the products. At Zain decisions to acquire new technological innovation and use it is usually done extended range run period whereby the provision of money is elastic. The intro of 3G technology for instance , had to imply generating a complete overhaul associated with its network Back bone tissue and Base Transmission Stations (BTS).. 4IMPACT AROUND THE SELECTIONS MADE TO PROMOTE SALES By increasing the Revenue work force last year, Zain’s new connections rate grew from an average associated with 7, 000 new subscribers per day to a great average of 12, 000 subscribers per day that will being an increase associated with 71%. Although, the duplicity of the sales force created higher costs inside terms of salaries, bonuses and training needs nevertheless the company could enjoy the economies of scale specifically economies in production where always division of labor improves productivity of labour per unit of price and time. 4. IMPACT FROM THE MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORY. Inventory control is the very important subject in addition to its role cannot become ignored. My experience exhibits me that improper supervision of inventory always results in lost sales, and customer dissatisfaction. Zain Tanzania’s strategically establishment of stores, points of sales, dealer shops and customer care points countrywide shows its commitment towards serving their customers in marketing driven manner and thus taking pleasure in economies in transport and technology. In accordance with Kotler plus Keller (2009), inventory ranges represent a significant cost.

Inventory level boosts at an accelerating rate as the customer-service level approaches 100%. They further argue that management requirements to recognize how much sales and profits would enhance as a result associated with carrying larger inventories and promising faster order happiness times, and then help make a conclusion. 4. 6IMPACT ASSOCIATED WITH THE RANGE OF BUSINESS AND NATURE OF ITEM Perhaps the decision created by Zain Tanzania recently to be able to outsource its network operations to Nokia Siemens is probably the major decision done as its business commencement.

One of the very first incidences is the move of Zain Tanzania employees belonging to the community operations department Nokia Siemens. The announcement of the decision ignited reactions in addition to questioning their gratuity and terminal benefits entitlements. The particular company has possibly disregarded personnel issues in the outsourcing decision; this might lead to employee (labor- a factor input) losing commitment to the firm and hence affecting output negatively. The significant features of this outsourcing are that will Nokia Siemens Networks is actually a market leader in controlling outsourced networks.

Moreover, Zain will become in a stronger position to dedicate resources and property to its core business operations, continue to enhance customer support, developing and launching new products, solutions. 5. 0CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS: According to Wheelen in addition to Hunger (2008), as businesses grow larger and even more complex, with additional uncertain surroundings, decisions becuome increasingly difficult and difficult to create. Nearly all of the decisions manufactured by Zain as highlighted above tend to be more reactive inside nature than proactive.

The 2 authors suggest the use of Mintzberg’s Modes of Strategic Making decisions which has four standard approaches: Entrepreneurial mode, Adaptive mode, Planning mode, plus Logical incrementalism. From the perspective of Zain Tanzania’s provision of varied products and services, it is hereby suggested that the company to keep on innovating new products and this can be achieved by investing in Research and Development (R & D). Definitely, managerial decisions can create rise to various influences as explained above; therefore, it is the responsibility of selection makers to bear in mind the interests of stakeholders.

Typically the example of misunderstanding in between Zain Management and procedures department staff who will be transferred to Nokia Siemens. Despite the global financial trouble the telecommunication sector in Tanzania is continuing to increase as shown in appendix iii and iv. Regrettably, the data to demonstrate sectoral contribution in the advancement Tanzania economy was not able to be obtained. But, certainly the information available in typically the appendix iii and 4 shows a prosperous future found in the sector and Zain has an opportunity regarding achieving its objective to be among the top 10 global wireless operators by 2011.

Zain Tanzania was recently the very best the 2009 Looked upon Company in Tanzaniand ikke- 2008 Most Respected Organization in East Africa; with one of these victories it surely can perform its objectives but if and only if it employs effective managerial decision making. Appendix i Managerial choice Areas •Assessment of Investible Funds •Choice of Item •Determining Optimum Output •Determining Price of the Item •Determining Input-Combination and Technology •Sales Promotion Application associated with Economic Concepts and Theories in Decision-Making Use of Quantitative Methods •Mathematical Tools Statistical Tools •Econometrics Managerial Economics Application of Financial Concepts, Theories and Synthetic Tools to find the best Treatment for Business Problems. Fig. Putting on Economics to Managerial Decision-Making. Source: Dwivedi (2008) Appendix ii Fig. Zain Tanzania organization Structure Appendix iii. 1. Licenced Telecommunication Operators Years200020012002200320042005200620072008June 09 Quantity of Voice Mobile Operators5665556666 Number of ISP/Data Operators11172022232325346062 2. Voice Subscriptions Year200020012002200320042005200620072008June 09

Number of Fixed Network Subscriptions173, 591177, 802161, 590147, 006148, 360154, 420151, 644163, 269123, 809179, 849 Number of Mobile Network Subscriptions126, 646275, 560606, 8591, 295, 0001, 942, 0003, 389, 7875, 614, 9228, 322, 85713, 006, 79314, 723, a hundred seventy five Total Number of Subscriptions300, 237453, 362768, 4491, 442, 0062, 090, 3603, 544, 2075, 766, 5668, 486, 12613, 130, 60214, 903, 024 Teledensity (Penetrations)1%1%2%4%6%10%15%21%32%36% Appendix 4. Subscription Per Operator YEARBENSONCELTELTIGOTTCL FixedTTCL MOBILEVODACOMZANTEL MOBILEZANTEL FIXEDTOTAL 2000– 56, 511173, 591-50, 0004, 007-284, 109 001– 89, 056177, 802-180, 0006, 501-453, 359 2002-120, 089160, 000161, 590-300, 00026, 770-768, 449 2003-320, 000210, 000147, 006-700, 00068, 000-1, 445, 006 2004-504, 000303, 000148, 360-1, 050, 00085, 000-2, 090, 360 2005-882, 693422, 500154, 420-1, 562, 43596, 109-3, 118, 157 2006-1, 516, 832760, 874150, 8976, 390 2, 975, 580355, 246747 5, 766, 566 2007 3, 300 two, 505, 546 1, 191, 678 157, 816 72, 729 3, 870, 843 678, 761 5, 453 8, 486, 126 08 3, 000 3, 862, 3712, 569, 527 116, 265 105, 804 a few, 408, 439 1, 057, 652 7, 544 thirteen, 130, 602 June 20093, 500 4, 435, 4623, 264, 565 166, 379 111, 7135, 921, 265 986, 670 13, 470 14, 903, 024 Supply: Operators Monthly Subscriber bottom Report) Subscriber Shares June 2009Trends of Voice Operators’ Subscriptions REFERENCES: Arthur A new. Thompson, Jr., John Electronic. Gamble and A. J. Stickland (2004), Strategy: Winning in the Market Spot, International Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York. D. In. Dwivedi (2008), Managerial Economics, Seventh Edition, Vikas Building House PVT LTD, Brand new Delhi. Philip Kottler(2002), Marketing and advertising Management, 10th Edition. The Millennium Edition), Prentice-Hall regarding India, New Delhi. Philip R. Cateora, John L. Graham and Prashant Salwan (2008), International Marketing, 13th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. Tanzania Communications Regulatory Specialist (TCRA), Telecommunications Statistics from 2000 to June this year Thomas J. Webster (2003), Managerial Economics: Theory plus Practice, Academic Press, Ca, USA. Zain Website: www. zain. possuindo

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