Types Of Cyber Crime
I would like to express my special thanks to my Contemporary Crimes And The Law Professor Mrs. RuchiSinha for bringing me such an interesting topic to study. It is a great opportunity for me to write about the subject like Ownership of copyright under Indian Law .I am highly indebted to him for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2.Types Of Cybercrime Financial Piracy Hacking Cyber-Terrorism Pornography In Schools Affects To Whom Need of Cyber Law Introduction As the analysis reaches deeper behind the recent Paris attacks, it has become clear that terrorism today is a widening series of global alliances often assisted and connected via cyber social media, and electronic propaganda.
Cyberspace is now becoming home to a digital revolution, where different types of computers are the new brainchild of our cognitive culture. Just as the mechanization of agriculture and production took over the muscles and bodies of our workers, so the computer has begun to replace our brains, machinery, and infrastructures. These new electronic networks leave ‘exhaust’ data of the social activities and commercial transactions of network traders, political, and business collaborators. This data tells us much forensically about what happened with the data’s use. Electronic data is increasingly becoming an open door to insecurity. In the early years of cyber we traded off these disadvantages, but for the last decade we have reached the cyber borders where we can assume that security constantly applies and requires a sophisticated and continual audit process. These systems require far more senior management understanding and involvement, and should not be left solely to the technologists. Cyber-Crime ('computer crime') is any illegal behaviour directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. In a wider sense, 'computer-related crime' can be any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, however, this is not cyber-crime. The United Nations has categorized five offenses as cyber-crime: unauthorized access, damage to computer data or programs, sabotage to hinder the functioning of a computer system or network, unauthorized interception of data to, from and within a system or network, and computer espionage. The categories of cyber-crime are: Financial – crimes which disrupt businesses' ability to conduct 'e-commerce' (or electronic commerce).
Piracy — the act of copying copyrighted material. The personal computer and the Internet both offer new mediums for committing an 'old' crime. Online theft is defined as any type of 'piracy' that involves the use of the Internet to market or distribute creative works protected by copyright.
Hacking — the act of gaining unauthorized access to a computer system or network and in some cases making unauthorized use of this access. Hacking is also the act by which other forms of cyber-crime (e.g., fraud, terrorism, etc.) are committed.
Cyber-terrorism — the effect of acts of hacking designed to cause terror. Like conventional terrorism, `e-terrorism' is classified as such if the result of hacking is to cause violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear.
Online Pornography — There are laws against possessing or distributing child pornography. Distributing pornography of any form to a minor is illegal. The Internet is merely a new medium for this `old' crime, but how best to regulate this global medium of communication across international boundaries and age groups has sparked a great deal of controversy and debate. In Schools – While the Internet can be a unique educational and recreational resource for children, it is important that they are educated about how to safely and responsibly use this powerful tool. The founding goal of B4USurf is to encourage empowering children through knowledge of the law, their rights, and how best to prevent misuse of the Internet.
TYPES OF CYBERCRIME
Financial Public confidence in the security of information processed and stored on computer networks and a predictable environment of strong deterrence for computer crime is critical to the development of 'e-commerce' (or electronic commerce) , or commercial transactions online. Companies' ability to participate in e-commerce depends heavily on their ability to minimize e-risk.
Risks in the world of electronic transactions online include viruses, cyber attacks (or distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks) such as those which were able to bring Yahoo, eBay and other websites to a halt in February 2000, and e-forgery. There also have been other highly publicized problems of 'e-fraud' and theft of proprietary information in some cases even for ransom ('e-extortion'). Piracy The software industry plays a leading role in creating products that have vastly improved our lives and work environment. Unfortunately, software theft, or piracy, has had a negative impact on the global marketplace and the ability to create new products. Copying in the workplace, counterfeiting and various forms of illegal distribution cost the Asia Pacific region almost US$21 billion in 2011 (Ninth Annual BSA Global Software Piracy Study). This study covers all packaged software that runs on personal computers, including desktops, laptops, and ultra-portables, including operating systems, systems software such as databases and security packages, business applications, and consumer applications such as PC games, personal finance, and reference software. The study does not include other types of software such as that which runs on servers or mainframes or software sold as a service.). Furthermore, the unauthorized electronic distribution and sale of copyrighted works over the Internet threaten to make these problems seem almost quaint by comparison.
Legal and cultural frameworks to protect creative works online, including computer software, must be identified and built to encourage creativity and growth. Hacking Modern-day graffiti has moved beyond scribbles on monuments and subway cars and now takes the form of defacing websites. This may be done for personal notoriety, the challenge, or a political message just as with traditional defacement of property, but this new form of exploit is no joking matter. In addition to the obvious economic threats of hacking there is also real physical danger which can be caused by hacking into computer networks. Section 66 of the Information Technology Act also makes the hacking with computer system punishable for three years which is as follows: "66.Hacking with computer system. Whoever with the intent to cause or knowing that he is likely to cause wrongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits hacking. Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment upto three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both" Cyber-Terrorism Cyber-terrorism is distinguished from other acts of commercial crime or incidents of hacking by its severity. Attacks against computer networks or the information stored therein which result in "violence against persons or property, or at least cause enough harm to generate fear" are to be considered cyber-terrorism attacks according to congressional testimony from Georgetown University professor Dorothy Denning. "Attacks that disrupt nonessential services or that are mainly a costly nuisance" are not classified as cyber-terrorist attacks by her definition.
Pornography Children's exposure to pornography while online has become a political topic with various family-oriented groups seeking to prevent children's access to such sites. In Schools While the Internet can be a unique educational and recreational resource for children, it is important that they are educated about how to safely and responsibly use this powerful tool. Several issues have received particular attention with respect to protecting children online. Parents should be aware of cyber stalking and the threats that online predators pose to children's physical safety; harmful or inappropriate content (most often characterized as pornographic, excessively violent or simply 'adult'); privacy invasions that result from the collection of personally identifiable information about individual children; and commercialism and aggressive marketing targeted directly at children.
Affects To Whom: Cyber Crimes always affects the companies of any size because almost all the companies gain an online presence and take advantage of the rapid gains in the technology but greater attention to be given to its security risks. In the modern cyber world cyber crimes is the major issue which is affecting individual as well as society at large too.
Need of Cyber Law: information technology has spread throughout the world. The computer is used in each and every sector wherein cyberspace provides equal opportunities to all for economic growth and human development. As the user of cyberspace grows increasingly diverse and the range of online interaction expands, there is expansion in the cyber crimes i.e. breach of online contracts, perpetration of online torts and crimes etc. Due to these consequences there was need to adopt a strict law by the cyberspace authority to regulate criminal activities relating to cyber and to provide better administration of justice to the victim of cyber crime. In the modern cyber technology world it is very much necessary to regulate cyber crimes and most importantly cyber law should be made stricter in the case of cyber terrorism and hackers.